Friday, December 3, 2010
Om. Paiṅgala, having served under Yājñavalkya for twelve years, asked him to initiate him into the supreme mysteries of Kaivalya. To which Yājñavalkya replied thus: "O gentle one, at first, this (universe) was Saṭ (Be-ness) only. It (Saṭ) is spoken of as Brahman which is ever free (from the trammels of matter), which is changeless, which is Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss, and which is full, permanent, and one only without a second. In It, was like a mirage in the desert, silver in mother-of-pearl, a person in the pillar, or colour, etc., in the crystals, mūlaprakṛṭi, having in equal proportions the guṇas, red, white, and black, and being beyond the power of speech. That which is reflected in it is Sākshi-Chaiṭanya (lit., the witness-consciousness), It (mūlaprakṛṭi) undergoing again change becomes with the preponderance of Saṭṭva (in it), Āvaraṇa Śakṭi named avyakṭa. That which is reflected in it (Avyakṭa) is Īśvara-Chaiṭanya. He (Īśvara) has Māyā under his control, is omniscient, the original cause of creation, preservation, and dissolution, and the seed of this universe. He causes the universe which was latent in Him, to manifest itself through the bonds of karma of all creatures like a painted canvas unfurled. Again through the extinction
of their karmas, he makes it disappear. In Him alone is latent all the universe, wrapped up like a painted cloth. Then from the supreme (Āvaraṇa) Śakṭi, dependent on (or appertaining to Īśvara, arose, through the preponderance of Rajas, Vikshepa Śakṭi called Mahaṭ. That which is reflected in it is Hiraṇyagarbha-Chaiṭanya. Presiding (as He does) over Mahaṭ, He (Hiraṇyagarbha) has a body, both manifested and unmanifested. From Vikshepa Śakṭi, of Hiraṇyagarbha arose, through the preponderance of Ṭamas, the gross Śakṭi called ahaṅkāra. That which is reflected in it is Virāt-Chaiṭanya. He (Virāt) presiding over it (ahaṅkāra) and possessing a manifested body becomes Vishṇu, the chief Purusha and protector of all gross bodies. From that Āṭmā arose ākāś; from ākāś arose vāyu, from vāyu agni, from agni apas, and from apas pṛṭhivī. The five ṭanmāṭras (rudimentary properties) alone are the guṇas (of the above five). That generating cause of the universe (Īśvara) wishing to create and having assumed ṭamo-guṇa, wanted to convert the elements which were subtle ṭanmāṭras into gross ones. In order to create the universe, he divided into two parts each of those divisible elements; and having divided each moiety into four parts, made a fivefold mixture, each element having moiety of its own original element and one-fourth of a moiety of each of the other elements, and thus evolved out of the fivefold classified gross elements, the many myriads of Brahmāṇdas (Brahma's egg or macrocosm), the fourteen worlds pertaining to each sphere, and the spherical gross bodies (microcosm) fit for the (respective) worlds. Having divided the Rajas-essence of the five elements into four parts, He out of three such parts created (the five) prāṇas having fivefold function. Again out of the (remaining) fourth part, He created karmenḍriyas (the organs of action). Having divided their Saṭṭva-essence into four parts, He out of three such parts created the antaḥkaraṇa (internal organ) having fivefold
function. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Śaṭṭva-essence, he created the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense). Out of the collective totality of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the ḍevaṭās (deities) ruling over the organs of sense and actions. Those (ḍevaṭās) He created, He located in the spheres (pertaining to them). They through His orders, began to pervade the macrocosm. Through His orders, Virat associated with ahaṅkāra created all the gross things. Through His orders, Hiraṇyagarbha protected the subtle things. Without Him, they that were located in their spheres were unable to move or to do anything. Then He wished to infuse cheṭana (life) into them. Having pierced the Brahmāṇda (Brahma's egg or macrocosm) and Brahmaranḍhras (head-fontanelle) in all the microcosmic heads, He entered within. Though they were (at first) inert, they were then able to perform karmas like beings of intelligence. The omniscient Īśvara entered the microcosmic bodies with a particle of Māyā and being deluded by that Māyā, acquired the state of diva. Identifying the three bodies with Himself, He acquired the state of the actor and enjoyer. Associated with the attributes of the states of jāgraṭ, svapna, sushupṭi, trance, and death and being immersed in sorrow, he is (whirled about and) deluded like water-lift or potter's wheel, as if subject to birth and death."
Paiṅgala again addressed Yājñavalkya thus: "How did Īśvara, who is the creator, preserver, and destroyer and the Lord of all the worlds, acquire the state of Jīva?" To which Yājñavalkya replied: "I shall tell in detail the nature of Jīva and Īśvara, together with a description of the origin of the gross, subtle, and kāraṇa (causal) bodies. Hear attentively with one-pointed mind.
"Īśvara having taken a small portion of the quintuplicated mahā-bhūṭas, (the great elements), made in regular order the gross bodies, both collective and segregate. The skull, the skin, the intestines, bone, flesh, and nails are of the essence of pṛṭhivī. Blood, urine, saliva, sweat and others are of the essence of
āpas. Hunger, thirst, heat, delusion, and copulation are of the essence of agni. Walking, lifting, breathing and others are of the essence of vāyu. Passion, anger, etc., are of the essence of ākāś. The collection of these having touch and the rest is this gross body that is brought about by karma, that is the seat of egoism in youth and other states and that is the abode of many sins. Then He created prāṇas out of the collective three parts of Rajas-essence of the fivefold divided elements. The modifications of prāṇa are prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna; nāga, karma, kṛkara, ḍevaḍaṭṭa and dhanañjaya are the auxiliary prāṇas. (Of the first five), the heart, anus, navel, throat and the whole body are respectively the seats. Then He created the karmenḍriyas out of the fourth part of the Rajas-guṇa. Of 'Olds' and the rest the mouth, legs, hands, and the organs of secretion and excretion are the modifications. Talking, walking, lifting, excreting, and enjoying are their functions. Likewise out of the collective three parts of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the antaḥkaraṇa (internal organ). Anṭaḥkaraṇa, manas, buḍḍhi, chiṭṭa, and ahaṅkāra are the modifications. Saṅkalpa (thought), certitude, memory, egoism, and anusanḍhāna (inquiry) are their functions. Throat, face, navel, heart, and the middle of the brow are their seats. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense). Ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose are the modifications. Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour are their functions. Ḍik (the quarters), Vāyu, Arka (the sun), Varuṇa, Aśvini Ḍevas, Inḍra, Upenḍra, Mṛṭyu (the God of death), Prajāpaṭi, the Moon, Vishṇu the four-faced Brahma and Śambhu (Śiva) are the presiding deities of the organs. There are the five kośas (sheaths), viz., annamaya, prāṇamaya, manomaya, vijñānamaya, and ānanḍamaya. Annamaya sheath is that which is created and developed out of the essence of food, and is absorbed into the earth which is of the form of food. It alone is the gross body. The prāṇas with the karmenḍriyas (organs of action) is the prāṇamaya
sheath. Manas with the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense) is the manomaya sheath. Buḍḍhi with the jñānenḍriyas is the vijñānamaya sheath. These three sheaths constitute the liṅgaśarīra (or the subtle body). (That which tends to) the ajñāna (ignorance) of the Reality (of Āṭmā) is the ānanḍamaya sheath. This is the kāraṇa body. Moreover the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, the five prāṇas and others, the five ākāś and other elements, the four internal organs, aviḍyā, passion, karma, and Lamas—all these constitute this town (of body).
"Virāt, under the orders of Īśvara having entered this microcosmic body, and having buḍḍhi as his vehicle, reaches the state of Viśva. Then he goes by the several names of Viñjānāṭma, Chiḍābhāsa, Viśva, Vyāvahārika, the one presiding over the waking gross body and the one generated by karma. Sūṭrāṭmā, under the orders of Īśvara, having entered the microcosmic subtle body, and having manas as his vehicle, reaches the Ṭaijasa state. Then he goes by the names of ṭaijasa, prāṭibhāsika and svapnakalpiṭa (the one bred out of dream). Then under the orders of Īśvara, he who is coupled with avyakṭa, the vehicle of Māyā having entered the microcosmic kāraṇa body, reaches the state of prajñā. He goes then by the names of prajñā, avichchinna, and pāramārṭhika and sushupṭhi-abhimāni (the presider over sushupṭi). Such sacred sentences, as Ṭaṭṭvamasi (That art thou) and others, speak of the identity with the Brahman of the Pāramārṭhika-Jīva enveloped by ajñāna, which is but a small particle of avyakṭa; but not vyāvahārika and prāṭibhāsika (Jīvas). It is only that chaiṭanya which is reflected in antaḥkaraṇa that attains the three states. When it assumes the three states of jāgraṭ, swapna, and sushupṭi, it is like a water-lift as if grieved, born and dead. There are five avasṭhās—jāgraṭ, swapna, sushupṭi, mūrchchhā (trance), and death. Jāgraṭ avasṭhā is that in which there is the perception of objects, of sound, etc., through the grace of the ḍevaṭā presiding over each of them. In it, the Jīva, being in the middle of the eyebrows and pervading the body from head to foot, becomes the agent of actions, such as doing, hearing and others. He becomes also the enjoyer of the
fruits thereof; and such a person doing karma for the fruits thereof goes to other worlds and enjoys the same there. Like an emperor tired of worldly acts (in the waking state), he strives to find the path to retire into his abode within. The svapna avasṭhā is that in which, when the senses are at rest, there is the manifestation of the knower and the known, along with the affinities of (things enjoyed in) the waking state. In this state Viśva alone, its actions in the waking state having ceased, reaches the state of Ṭaijasa (of ṭejas or effulgence), who moves in the middle of the nādīs (nerves), illuminates by his lustre the heterogeneity of this universe which is of the form of affinities, and himself enjoys according to his wish. The sushupṭi avasṭhā is that in which the chiṭṭa is sole organ (at play). Just as a bird, tired of roaming, flies to its nest with its stomach filled, so the Jīva being tired of the actions of the world in the waking and dreaming states, enters ajñāna and enjoys bliss. Then trance is attained which resembles death, and in which one with his collection of organs quails, as it were, through fear and ajñāna, like one beaten unexpectedly by a hammer, club or any other weapon. Then death avasṭhā is that which is other than the avasṭhās of jāgraṭ, svapna, sushupṭi, and trance, which produces fear in all Jīvas from Brahma down to small insects and which dissolves the gross body. The Jīva, that is surrounded by aviḍyā and the subtle elements, takes with it the organs of sense and action, their objects, and prāṇas along with the kāmic karmas and goes to another world, assuming another body. Through the ripening of the fruits of previous karmas, the Jīva has no rest like an insect in a whirlpool. It is only after many births that the desire of emancipation arises in man through the ripening of good karma. Then having resorted to a good Guru and served under him for a long time, one out of many attains moksha, free from bondage. Bondage is through non-inquiry and moksha through inquiry. Therefore there should always be inquiry (into Āṭmā). The Reality should be ascertained through aḍhyāropa (illusory attribution) and apavād (withdrawal or recession of that idea). Therefore there
should be always inquiring into the universe, Jīva and Paramāṭmā. Were the true nature of Jīva and the universe known, then there remains Brahman which is non-different from Praṭyagāṭmā."
Then Paiṅgala asked Yājñavalkya to offer an exposition on the mahāvākyas (sacred sentences of the Veḍas). To which Yājñavalkya replied: "One should scrutinise (the sacred sentences), Ṭaṭṭvamasi (That art thou), Ṭvamṭaḍasi (Thou art That), Ṭwambrahmasi (Thou art Brahman) and Ahambrahmāsmi (I am Brahman). The word 'Ṭaṭ' denotes the cause of the universe that is variegated beyond perception, has the characteristics of omniscience, has Māyā as His vehicle and has the attributes of Sachchiḍānanḍa. It is He that is the basis of the notion 'I' which has the differentiated knowledge produced by antaḥkaraṇa; and it is He that is denoted by the word 'Ṭwam' (Thou). That is the undifferentiated Brahman which remains as the aim (or meaning) of the words Ṭaṭ and Ṭvam after freeing itself from Māyā and Aviḍyā which are respectively the vehicles of Paramāṭmā and Jīvāṭmā. The inquiry into the real significance of the sentences Ṭaṭṭvamasi and Ahambrahmāsmi forms (what is called) śravaṇa (hearing—the first stage of inquiry). To inquire in solitude into the significance of śravaṇa is manana. The concentration of the mind with one-pointedness upon that which should be sought after by śravaṇa and manana is niḍiḍhyāsana. Samāḍhi is that state in which chiṭṭa having given up (the conception of the difference of) the meditator and the meditation, becomes of the form of the meditated like a lamp in a place without wind. Then arise the modifications pertaining to Āṭmā. Such (modifications) cannot be known; but they can only be inferred through memory (of the samāḍhi state). The myriads of karmas committed in this beginningless cycle of rebirths are annihilated only through them. Through proficiency in practice, the current of nectar
always rains down in diverse ways. Therefore those who know Yoga call this samāḍhi, ḍharma-megha (cloud). Through these (modifications of Āṭmā), the collection of affinities is absorbed without any remainder whatever. When the accumulated good and bad karmas are wholly destroyed, these sentences (Ṭaṭṭvamasi and Ahambrahmāsmi), like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand, bring him face to face with the ultimate Reality, though It was before invisible. Then he becomes a Jīvanmukṭa.
"Īśvara wished to produce non-quintuplication (or involution) in the fivefold differentiated elements. Having drawn into their cause Brahma's egg and its effects of worlds, and mixed together the subtle organs of sense and action and the four internal organs and dissolved all things composed of the elements into their cause, the five elements, He then caused pṛṭhivī to merge into water, water into agni, agni into vāyu, and vāyu into ākāś, ākāś into ahaṅkāra, akaṅkāra into mahaṭ, mahaṭ into avyakṭa, and avyakṭa into Purusha in regular order. Virat, Hiraṇyagarbha and Īśvara being freed from the vehicle of Māyā, are absorbed into Paramāṭmā. This gross body composed of the five differentiated elements and obtained through accumulated karma, is merged into its subtle state of non-quintuplicated elements, through the extinction of (bad) karma and increase of good karma, then attains its kāraṇa (causal) state and (finally) is absorbed into its cause, (viz.,) Kūtasṭha-Praṭyagāṭma. Viśva and Ṭaijasa and Prājña, their upāḍhi (of aviḍyā) having become extinct, are absorbed in Praṭyagāṭmā. This sphere (of universe) being burnt up by the fire of jñāna is absorbed along with its cause into Paramāṭmā. Therefore a Brāhmaṇa should be careful and always meditate upon the identity of Ṭaṭ and Ṭvam. Then Āṭmā shines, like the sun freed from the (obscuration of the) clouds. One should meditate upon Āṭmā in the midst (of the body) like a lamp within a jar.
"Āṭmā, the Kūtasṭha, should be meditated upon as being of the size of a thumb, as being of the nature of the jyoṭis (light) without smoke, as being within, illuminating all and as being
indestructible. That Muni (sage) who meditates (upon Āṭmā always) until sleep or death comes upon him passes into the state of (Jīvanmukṭi) emancipation like the immovable state of the wind. Then there remains that One (Brahman) without sound, touch, free from destruction, without taste or odour, which is eternal, which is without beginning or end, which is beyond, the Ṭaṭṭva of Mahaṭ, and which is permanent and without stain or disease."
Then Paiṅgala addressed Yājñavalkya thus: "To the wise, what is their karma? And what is their state?" To which Yājñavalkya replied: "A lover of moksha, having humility and other possessions (or virtues), enables twenty-one generations to cross (to Āṭmā). One through his being a Brahmaviṭ alone enables 101 generations to cross. Know Āṭmā to be the rider and the body as the chariot. Know also buḍḍhi as the charioteer and manas as the reins. The wise say the organs are the horses, the objects are the roads (through which the horses travel) and the hearts are the moving balloons. Mahāṛshis say that Āṭmā, when associated with the sense organs and manas, is the enjoyer. Therefore it is the actual Nārāyaṇa alone that is established in the heart. Till his prārabḍha karma is worn out, he exists (in his body) as in the (cast-off) slough of a serpent (without any desire for the body). An emancipated person having such a body roves about like a moon gladdening all with no settled place of abode. He gives up his body whether in a sacred place, or in a chaṅdāla's (out-caste's) house (without any distinction whatever), and attains salvation. Such a body (when seen by a person) should be offered as a sacrifice to ḍik (the quarters) or should be buried (underground). It is only to Purusha (the wise) that sannyāsa (renunciation) is ordained and not to others. In case of the
death of an ascetic who is of the form (or has attained the nature) of Brahman, there is no pollution (to be observed); neither the ceremonies of fire (as burning the body, homa, etc.); nor the piṇda (balls of rice), nor ceremonies of water, nor the periodical ceremonies (monthly and yearly). Just as a food once cooked is not again cooked, so a body once burnt (by the fire of wisdom) should not be burnt (or exposed to fire) again. To one whose body was burnt by the fire of wisdom there is neither śrāḍḍha (required to be performed), nor (funeral) ceremony. So long as there is the upāḍhi (of non-wisdom) in one, so long should he serve the Guru. He should conduct himself towards his Guru's wife and children as he does to his Guru. If being of a pure mind, of the nature of immaculate Chiṭ and resigned, and having the discrimination arising from the attainment of wisdom "I am He," he should concentrate his heart on Paramāṭmā and obtain firm peace in his body, then he becomes of the nature of Jyoṭis, void of manas and buḍḍhi. Of what avail is milk to one content with nectar? Of what avail are the Veḍas to him who has known his Āṭmā thus? For a Yogin content with the nectar of wisdom, there is nothing more to be done. If he has to do anything, then he is not a knower of Ṭaṭṭva. Praṭyagāṭmā though far (or difficult of attainment), is not far; though in the body, he is devoid of it (since) he is all-pervading. After having purified the heart and contemplated on the One without disease (viz., Brahman), the cognizing of 'I' as the supreme and the all is the highest bliss. Like water mixed with water, milk with milk, and ghee with ghee, so Jīvāṭmā and Paramāṭmā are without difference. When the body is rendered bright through wisdom and the buḍḍhi becomes of the partless One, then the wise man burns the bondage of karma through the fire of Brahma-jñāna. Then he becomes purified, of the nature of the non-dual named Parmeśvara and the light like the stainless ākāś. Like water mixed with water, so Jīva (-Āṭmā) becomes upāḍhiless (or freed from the bonds of matter). Āṭma, is, like ākāś, of an invisible form. (Therefore) the inner Āṭmā is invisible like vāyu. Though he is within and without, he is the immovable
Āṭmā. Through the torch of wisdom, the internal Āṭmā sees (or knows) .
"A wise man, in whatever place or manner he dies, is absorbed in that place like the all-pervading ākāś. It should be known that Āṭmā is absorbed as truly as the ākāś in the pot (when broken). Then he attains the all-pervading wisdom-light that is without support. Though men should perform ṭapas standing on one leg for a period of 1,000 years, it will not, in the least, be equal to one-sixteenth part of ḍhyānayoga. One desirous of knowing what jñāna (wisdom) and jñeya (the object to be known) are, will not be able to attain his desired end, even though he may study the Śāsṭras for 1,000 years. That which is alone should be known as the indestructible. That which exists (in this world) is only impermanent. (Therefore) after having given up (the study of) the many Śāsṭras, one should worship that which is saṭya (truth). The many karmas, purity (of mind and heart), japa (the muttering of manṭras), sacrifice and pilgrimages—all these should be observed till Ṭaṭṭva is known. For Mahatmas (noble souls) to be always in (the conception of) 'I am Brahman' conduces to their salvation. There are two causes (that lead) to bondage and emancipation. They are 'mine' and 'not mine'. Through 'mine' creatures are bound, whereas through 'not mine' they are released from bondage. When the mind attains the state of Unmani (above manas, viz., when it is destroyed), then there is never the conception of duality. When the Unmani state occurs, then is the supreme Seat (attained). (After which) wherever the mind goes, there is the supreme Seat (to it, viz., the mind enjoys salvation wherever it is). That which is equal in all is Brahman alone. One may attain the power to strike the ākāś with his fist; he may appease his hunger by eating husks (of grain), but never shall he attain emancipation who has not the self-cognition, 'I am Brahman'.
"Whoever recites this Upanishaḍ becomes as immaculate as Agni. He becomes as pare as Brahma. He becomes as pure as Vāyu. He becomes like one who has bathed in all the holy waters. He becomes like one who has studied all the Veḍas. He becomes like one that has undergone all veḍic observances. He
obtains the fruit of the recitation of Iṭihāsas Purāṇas and Ruḍramanṭras a lakh of times. He becomes like one that has pronounced Praṇava (Om) ten thousand times. He purifies his ancestors ten degrees removed and his descendants ten degrees removed. He becomes purified of all those that sit with him for dinner. He becomes a great personage. He becomes purified from the sins of the murder of a Brahman, the drinking of alcohol, theft of gold, and sexual cohabitation with Guru's wife, and from the sins of associating with those that commit such sins.
-SANDILYA-Om. Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: "Please tell me about the eight aṅgas (parts) of Yoga which is the means of attaining to Āṭmā."
Om. Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: "Please tell me about the eight aṅgas (parts) of Yoga which is the means of attaining to Āṭmā."
Aṭharvan replied: "The eight aṅgas of yoga are yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, praṭyāhāra, ḍhāraṇā, ḍhyāna, and samāḍhi. Of these, yama is of ten kinds: and so is niyama. There are eight āsanas. Prāṇāyāma is of three kinds; praṭyāhāra is of five kinds: so also is ḍhāraṇā. Ḍhyāna is of two kinds, and samāḍhi is of one kind only.
"Under yama (forbearance) are ten: ahimsā, saṭya, asṭeya brahmacharya, ḍayā, ārjava, kshamā, ḍhṛṭi, miṭāhāra, and śaucha. Of these, ahimsā is the not causing of any pain to any living being at any time through the actions of one's mind, speech, or body. Saṭya is the speaking of the truth that conduces to the well-being of creatures, through the actions of one's mind, speech, or body. Asṭeya is not coveting of another's property through the actions of one's mind, speech, or body. Brahmacharya is the refraining from sexual intercourse in all places and in all states in mind, speech or body. Ḍayā is kindliness towards all creatures in all places. Ārjava is the preserving of equanimity of mind, speech, or body in the performance or non-performance of the actions ordained or forbidden to be done. Kshamā is the bearing patiently of all pleasant or unpleasant things, such as praise or blow. Dhṛṭi is
the preserving of firmness of mind during the period of gain or loss of wealth or relatives. Miṭāhāra is the taking of oily and sweet food, leaving one-fourth of the stomach empty. Śaucha is of two kinds, external and internal. Of these, the external is the cleansing of the body by earth and water; the internal is the cleansing of the mind. This (the latter) is to be obtained by means of the aḍhyāṭma-viḍyā (science of Self).
"Under niyama (religious observances), are ten, viz., ṭapas, sanṭosha, āsṭikya, ḍāna, Īśvarapūjana, siḍḍhānṭa-śravaṇa, hrīḥ, maṭi, japa, and vraṭa. Of these ṭapas, is the emancipation of the body through the observances of such penances as kṛchchhra, chānḍrāyaṇa, etc., according to rules. Sanṭosha is being satisfied with whatever comes to us of its own accord. Āsṭikya is the belief in the merits or demerits of actions as stated in the Veḍas. Ḍāna is the giving with faith to deserving persons, money, grains, etc., earned lawfully. Īśvarapūjana is the worshipping of Vishṇu, Ruḍra, etc., with pure mind according to one's power. Siḍḍhānṭa-śravaṇa is the inquiry into the significance of Veḍānṭa. Hrīḥ is the shame felt in the performance of things contrary to the rules of the Veḍas and of society. Maṭi is the faith in the paths laid down by the Veḍas. Japa is the practising of the manṭras into which one is duly initiated by his spiritual instructor, and which is not against (the rules of) the Veḍas. It is of two kinds—the spoken and the mental. The mental is associated with contemplation by the mind. The spoken is of two kinds—the loud and the low. The loud pronunciation gives the reward as stated (in the Veḍas): (while) the low one (gives) a reward thousand times (that). The mental (gives) a reward a crore (of times that). Vraṭa is the regular observance of or the refraining from the actions enjoined or prohibited by the Veḍas.
"Āsanas (the postures) are (chiefly) eight, viz., svasṭika, gomukha, paḍma, vīra, simha, bhaḍra, mukṭa, and mayūra.
"Svasṭika is the sitting at ease with the body erect, placing each foot between the thighs and knees of the other. Gomukha is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) placing the hollow
of the left foot under the side of the right posteriors and the hollow of the right foot under the side of the left posteriors, resembling Gomukha (cow's face). Paḍma is (the sitting at ease with the body erect) placing the back of each foot in the thigh of the other, the right hand grasping the right toe and the left hand the left toe. This, O Śāṇdilya, is praised by all. Vīra is the sitting at ease (with the body erect), placing one foot (on the thigh of the other and the other foot underneath the corresponding (opposite thigh.) Simha is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) pressing the right side (of the thigh) with the hollow of left heel and vice versa. Rest your hands on the knees, spread out the fingers, open your mouth and carefully fix your gaze on the tip of your nose. This is always praised by the yogins. Siḍḍha 1 is (the sitting at ease with the body erect), pressing the perineum with the left heel and placing the heel of the right foot above the genital organ, concentrating the mind between the two eyebrows. Bhaḍra is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,)pressing the two ankles of the two feet firmly together against the Sīvinī (viz., lower part of the seed) and binding the knees firmly with the hands. This is the bhaḍra which destroys all diseases and poisons. Mukṭa is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) pressing with the left heel the right side of the tender part of the Sīvinī, and with the right heel the left side of the tender part of the Sīvinī. Mayūra—(lit., peacock). Rest your body upon the ground with both palms and place your elbows on the sides of the navel, lift up the head and feet and remain like a stick in the air, (like the plant balance in gymnastics). This is the mayūra posture which destroys all sins. By these, all the diseases within the body are destroyed; all the poisons are digested. Let the person who is unable to practise all these postures betake himself to any one (of these) which he may find easy and pleasant. He who conquers (or gets mastery over) the postures—he conquers the three worlds. A person who has the practice of yama and niyama should practise prāṇāyāma; by that the nādis become purified."
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: "By what means are the nādis purified? How many are they in number?
How do they arise? What vāyus (vital airs) are located in them? What are their seats? What are their functions? Whatever is worthy of being known in the body, please tell me." To that Aṭharvan replied (thus): "This body is ninety-six digits in length. Prāṇa extends twelve digits beyond the body. He who through the practice of yoga reduces his prāṇa within his body to make it equal to or not less than the fire in it becomes the greatest of the yogins. In men, the region of fire which is triangular in form and brilliant as the molten gold is situated in the middle of the body. In four-footed animals, it (fire) is quadrangular. In birds, it is round. In its (the region of fire's) centre, the purifying, beneficial, and subtle flame is situate. Two digits above the anus and two digits below the sexual organ is the centre of the body for men. For four-footed animals, it is the middle of the heart. For birds, it is the middle of the body. Nine digits from (or above) the centre of the body and four digits in length and breadth is situated an oval form. In its midst is the navel. In it, is situated the chakra (viz., wheel) with twelve spokes. In the middle of the chakra, the jīva (Āṭmā) wanders, driven by its good and bad deeds. As a spider flies to and fro within a web of fine threads, so prāṇa moves about here. In this body, the jīva rides upon prāṇa. Lying in the middle of the navel and above it, is the seat of kunḍalinī. The kunḍalinī śakṭi is of the form of eight prakṛṭis (matter) and coils itself eight ways or (times). The movement of vāyus (vital airs) checks duly the food and drink all round by the side of skanḍha. It closes by its head (the opening of) the brahmaranḍhra, and during the time of (the practice of) yoga is awakened by the fire (in the apāna); then it shines with great brilliancy in the ākāś of the heart in the shape of wisdom. Depending upon kunḍalinī which is situated in the centre, there are fourteen principal nādis (viz.,) Idā, Piṅgalā, Sushumnā, Sarasvaṭī, Vāruṇī, Pūshā, Hasṭijihvā, Yaśasvinī, Viśvoḍharī, Kuhūḥ, Śāṅkhinī, Payasvinī, Alambusā, and Gānḍhārī. Of them,
sustainer of the universe and the path of salvation. Situated at the back of the anus, it is attached to the spinal column and extends to the brahmaranḍhra of the head and is invisible and subtle and is vaishṇavī (or has the śakṭi force of Vishṇu). On the left of Sushumnā is situated Idā, and on the right is Piṅgalā. The moon moves in Idā and the sun in Piṅgalā. The moon is of the nature of ṭamas and the sun of rajas. The poison share is of the sun and the nectar of the moon. They both direct (or indicate) time and Sushumnā is the enjoyer (or consumer) of time. To the back and on the side of Sushumnā are situate Sarasvaṭī and Kuhūḥ respectively. Between Yaśasvinī and Kuhūḥ stands Vāruṇī. Between Pasha and Sarasvaṭī lies Payasvinī. Between Gānḍhārī and Sarasvaṭī is situated Yaśasvinī. In the centre of the navel is Alambusā. In front of Sushumnā there is Kuhūḥ, which proceeds as far as the genital organ. Above and below kunḍalinī is situated Vāruṇī, which proceeds everywhere. Yaśasvinī which is beautiful (or belonging to the moon), proceeds to the great toes. Piṅgalā goes upwards to the right nostril. Payasvinī goes to right ear. Sarasvaṭī goes to the upper part or the tongue and Śāṅkhinī to the left ear, (while) Gānḍhārī goes from the back of Idā to the left eye. Alambusā goes upwards and downwards from the root of the anus. From these fourteen nādis, other (minor) nādis spring; from them springing others, and from them springing others; so it should be known. As the leaf of the aśvaṭṭha tree (ficus religiosa) etc., is covered with minute fibres so also is this body permeated with nādis.
"Prāṇa, Apāna, Samāna, Uḍāna, Vyāna, Naga, Karma, Kṛkara, Devaḍaṭṭa, and Ḍhanañjaya—these ten vāyus (vital airs) move in all the nādis. Prāṇa moves in the nostrils, the throat, the navel, the two great toes and the lower and the upper parts of kunḍalinī. Vyāna moves in the ear, the eye, the loins, the ankles, the nose, the throat and the buttocks. Apāna moves in the anus, the genitals, the thighs, the knees. the stomach, the seeds, the loins, the calves, the navel, and the
seat of the anus of fire. Uḍāna lives in all the joints and also in the hands and legs. Samāna lives, permeating in all parts of the body. Along with the fire in the body, it causes the food and drink taken in, to spread in the body. It moves in the seventy-two thousand nādis and pervades all over the body along with the fire. The five vāyus beginning with Naga go towards the skin, the bones, etc. The Prāṇa which is in the navel separates the food and drink which is there and brings about the rasas (juices) and others. 1 Placing the water above the fire and the food above (or in) the water, it goes to the Apāna and along with it, fans up the fire in the centre of the body. The fire thus fanned up by the Apāna gradually increases in brightness in the middle of the body. Then it causes through its flames the water which is brought in the bowels by the Prāṇa to grow hot. The fire with the water causes the food and condiments, which are placed above, to be boiled to a proper degree. Then Prāṇa separates these into sweat, urine, water, blood, semen, the fæces and the like. And along with the Samaria, it takes the juice (or essence) to all the nādis and moves in the body in the shape of breath. The vāyus excrete the urine, the fæces, etc., through the nine openings in the body which are connected with the outside air. The functions of Prāṇa are inspiration, expiration, and cough. Those of Apāna are the excretion of the fæces and the urine. Those of Vyāna are (such actions as) giving and taking. Those of Uḍāna are keeping the body straight, etc. Those of Samāna are nourishing the body. Those of Nāga are vomiting, etc.; of Kūrma, the movement of the eyelids; of Kṛkara, the causing of hunger, etc., of Ḍevaḍaṭṭa, idleness, etc., and Ḍhanañjaya, phlegm.
"Having thus acquired a thorough knowledge of the seat of the nādis and of the vāyus with their functions, one should begin with the purification of the nādis. A person possessed of yama and niyama, avoiding all company, having finished his course of study, delighting in truth and virtue, having conquered (his) anger, being engaged in the service of his spiritual instructor and having been obedient to his parents
and well instructed in all the religious practices and the knowledge of his order of life, should go to a sacred grove abounding in fruits, roots, and water. There he should select a pleasant spot always resounding with the chanting of the Veḍas, frequented by the knowers of Brahman that persevere in the duties of their orders of life and filled with fruits, roots, flowers, and water. (Else) either in a temple or on the banks of a river or in a village or in a town, he should build a beautiful monastery. It should be neither too long nor too high, should have a small door, should be besmeared well with cow-dung and should have every sort of protection. There listening to the exposition of veḍānṭa, he should begin to practise yoga, In the beginning having worshipped Vināyaka (Gaṇeśa), he should salute his Ishta-Ḍevaṭā (tutelary deity) and sitting in any of the above-mentioned postures on a soft seat, facing either the east or the north and having conquered them, the learned man keeping his head and neck erect and fixing his gaze on the tip of his nose, should see the sphere of the moon between his eyebrows and drink the nectar (flowing therefrom through his eyes. Inhaling the air through Idā for the space of twelve māṭrās, he should contemplate on the sphere of fire situated in the belly as surrounded with flames and having as its seed र (ra); then he should exhale it through Piṅgalā. Again inhaling it through Piṅgalā and retaining it (within), he should exhale it through Idā. For the period of twenty-eight months, he should practise six times at every sitting through the three sanḍhyās (morning, noon, and evening)
and during the intervals. By this, the nādis become purified. Then the body becomes light and bright, the (gastric) fire is increased (within) and there is the manifestation of nāḍa (internal sound).
"Prāṇāyāma is said to be the union of Prāṇa and Apāna. It is of three kinds—expiration, inspiration, and cessation. They are associated with the letters of the (Samskṛṭ) alphabet (for the right performance of prāṇāyāma). Therefore Praṇava (Om) only is said to be Prāṇāyāma. Sitting in the paḍma posture, the person should meditate that there is at the tip of his nose Gāyaṭrī, a girl of red complexion surrounded by the numberless rays of the image of the moon and mounted on a hamsa (swan) and having a mace in her hand. She is the visible symbol of the letter A. The letter U has as its visible symbol Sāviṭrī, a young woman of white colour having a disk in her hand and riding on a garuda (eagle). The letter M has as its visible symbol Sarasvaṭī, 2 an aged woman of black colour riding on a bull, having a trident in her hand. He should meditate that the single letter—the supreme light—the praṇava (Om)—is the origin or source of these three letters A, U, and M. Drawing up the air through Idā for the space of sixteen māṭrās, he should meditate on the letter A during that time; retaining the inspired air for the space of sixty-four māṭrās, he should meditate on the letter U during the time; he should then exhale the inspired air for the space of thirty-two māṭrās, meditating on the letter M during that time. He should practise this in the above order over and over again.
"Then having become firm in the posture and preserved perfect self-control, the yogin should, in order to clear away the impurities of the Sushumnā, sit in the paḍmāsana (paḍma posture), and having inhaled the air through the left nostril, should retain it as long as he can and should exhale it through the right. Then drawing it again through the right and having retained it, he should exhale it through the left in the order
that he should draw it through the same nostril by which he exhaled it before and retained it. In this context, occur (to memory) the following verses: "In the beginning having inhaled the breath (Prāṇa) through the left nostril, according to the rule, he should exhale it through the other; then having inhaled the air through the right nostril, should retain it and exhale it through the other." To those who practise according to these rules through the right and left nostrils, the nādis become purified within three months. He should practise cessation of breath at sunrise, in the midday, at sunset and at midnight slowly till eighty (times a day) for four weeks. In the early stages, perspiration is produced; in the middle stage the tremor of the body, and in the last stage levitation in the air. These (results) ensue out of the repression of the breath, while sitting in the paḍma posture. When perspiration arises with effort, he should rub his body well. By this, the body becomes firm and light. In the early course of his practice, food with milk and ghee is excellent. One sticking to this rule becomes firm in his practice and gets no ṭāpa (or burning sensation in the body). As lions, elephants and tigers are gradually tamed, so also the breath, when rightly managed (comes under control); else it kills the practitioner.
"He should (as far as is consistent with his health and safety) properly exhale it, properly inhale it or retain it properly. Thus (only) will he attain success. By thus retaining the breath in an approved manner and by the purification of the nādis, the brightening of the (gastric) fire, the hearing distinctly of (spiritual) sounds and (good) health result. When the nervous centres have become purified through the regular practice of Prāṇāyāma, the air easily forces its way up through the mouth of the Sushumnā which is in the middle. By the contraction of the muscles of the neck and by the contraction of the one below (viz.,) Apāna, the Prāṇa (breath) goes into the Sushumnā which is in the middle from the west nādi. Drawing
up the Apāna and forcing down the Prāṇa from the throat, the yogin free from old age becomes a youth of sixteen.
"Seated in a pleasant posture and drawing up the air through the right nostril and retaining it inside from the top of the hair to the toe nails, he should exhale it through the same nostril. Through it, the brain becomes purified and the diseases in the air nādis are destroyed. Drawing up the air through the nostrils with noise (so as to fill the space) from the heart to the neck, and having retained it (within) as long as possible, he should exhale it through the nose. Through this, hunger, thirst, idleness and sleep do not arise.
"Taking in the air through the mouth (wide open) and having retained it as long as possible, he should expel it through the nose. Through this, (such diseases as) gulma, pleeha (both being splenetic diseases), bile and fever as also hunger, etc., are destroyed.
"Now we shall proceed to kumbhaka (restraint of breath). It is of two kinds—sahiṭa and kevala. That which is coupled with expiration and inspiration is called sahiṭa. That which is devoid of these is called kevala (alone). Until you become perfect in kevala, practise sahiṭa. To one who has mastered kevala, there is nothing unattainable in the three worlds. By kevala-restraint of breath, the knowledge of kunḍalinī arises. Then he becomes lean in body, serene in face and clear-eyed, hears the (spiritual) sounds distinctly, becomes free from all diseases and conquers his (binḍu) seminal fluid, his gastric fire being increased.
"Centring one's mind on an inward object whilst his eyes are looking outside without the shutting and opening of his eyelids, has been called Vaishṇavīmuḍrā. This is kept hidden in all the
ṭānṭric works. With his mind and breath absorbed in an internal object, the yogin, though he does not really see the objects outside and under him, still (appears to) see them with eyes in which the pupils are motionless. This is called Khecharīmuḍrā. It has as its sphere of extension one object and is very beneficial. (Then) the real seat of Vishṇu, which is void and non-void, dawns on him. With eyes half closed and with a firm mind, fixing his eyes on the tip of his nose and becoming absorbed in the sun and moon, he after remaining thus unshaken (becomes conscious of) the thing which is of the form of light, which is free from all externals, which is resplendent, which is the supreme truth and which is beyond. O Śāṇdilya, know this to be Ṭaṭ (That). Merging the sound in the light and elevating the brows a little, this is of the way of (or is a part of) the former practice. This brings about the state of Unmani which causes the destruction of the mind. Therefore he should practise the Khecharīmuḍrā. Then he attains to the state of Unmanī and falls into the yoga sleep (trance). To one who obtains this yoga sleep, time does not exist. Placing the mind in the midst of śakṭi and śakṭi in the midst of the mind and looking on the mind with the mind, O Śāndilya be happy. Place the Āṭma in the midst of ākāś and ākāś in the midst of Āṭmā, and having reduced everything to ākāś, do not think of anything else. You should not (then) entertain thoughts, either external or internal. Abandoning all thoughts, become abstract thought itself. As camphor in fire and salt in water become absorbed, so also the mind becomes absorbed in the Ṭaṭṭva (Truth). What is termed manas (mind) is the knowledge of everything that is known and its clear apprehension. When the knowledge and the object cognised are lost alike, there is no second path (or that is the only path). By its giving up all cognition of objects, it (the mind) is absorbed and when the mind is absorbed, kaivalya (isolation) alone remains.
"For the destruction of the chiṭṭa, there are two ways—yoga and jñāna. O prince of sages! yoga is the (forcible)
repression of the modifications of the mind, and jñāna is the thorough inquiry into them. When the modifications of the mind are repressed, it (the mind) verily obtains peace. Just as the actions of the people cease with the stopping of the fluctuations of the sun (viz., with sunset), so when the fluctuations of the mind cease, this cycle of births and deaths comes to an end. (Then) the fluctuations of prāṇa are prevented, when one has no longing for this mundane existence or when he has gratified his desires therein—through the study of religious books, the company of good men, indifference (to enjoyments), practice and yoga or long contemplation with intentness on any desired (higher) object or through practising one truth firmly.
"By the repression of the breath through inhalation, etc., by continual practice therein which does not cause fatigue, and by meditating in a secluded place, the fluctuations of the mind are arrested. Through the right realisation of the true nature of the sound which is at the extreme end of the pronunciation of the syllable Om (viz., Arḍhamāṭrā), and when sushupṭi (dreamless sleeping state) is rightly cognised through consciousness, the fluctuations of prāṇa are repressed. When the passage at the root of the palate which is like the bell, viz., uvula, is closed by the tongue with effort and when the breath goes up through (the upper hole), then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the consciousness (samviṭ) is merged in prāṇa, and when through practice the prāṇa goes through the upper hole into the ḍvāḍasānṭa (the twelfth centre) above the palate, then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the eye of consciousness (viz., the spiritual or third eye) becomes calm and clear so as to be able to distinctly see in the transparent ākāś at a distance of twelve digits from the tip of his nose, then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the thoughts arising in the mind are bound up in the calm contemplation of the world of ṭāraka (star or eye) between one's eyebrows and are (thus) destroyed, then the fluctuations cease. When the is of the form of the knowable,
which is beneficent and which is untouched by any modifications arises in one and is known as OM only and no other, then the fluctuations of prāṇa cease. By the contemplation for a long time of the ākāś which is in the heart, and by the contemplation of the mind free from vāsānās, then the fluctuations of prāṇa cease. By these methods and various others suggested by (one's) thought and by means of the contact of the many (spiritual) guides, the fluctuations cease.
"Having by contraction opened the door of kunḍalinī, one should force open the door of moksha. Closing with her mouth the door through which one ought to go, the kuṇdalinī sleeps spiral in form and coiled up like a serpent. He who causes this kunḍalinī to move—he is an emancipated person. If this kunḍalinī were to sleep in the upper part of the neck of any yogin, it goes towards his emancipation. (If it were to sleep) in the lower part (of the body), it is for the bondage of the ignorant. Leaving the two nādis, Idā and the other (Piṅgalā), it (prāṇa) should move in the Sushumnā. That is the supreme seat of Vishṇu. One should practise control of breath with the concentration of the mind. The mind should not be allowed by a clever man to rest on any other thing. One should not worship Vishṇu during the day alone. One should not worship Vishṇu during the night alone; but should always worship Him, and should not worship Him merely during day and night. The wisdom-producing opening (near uvula) has five passages. O Śāṇdilya this is the khecharīmuḍrā; practise it. With one who sits in the khecharīmuḍrā, the vāyu which was flowing before through the left and right nādis now flows through the middle one (Sushumnā). There is no doubt about it. You should swallow the air through the void (Sushumnā) between Idā and Piṅgalā. In that place is khecharīmuḍrā situated, and that is the seat of Truth. Again that is khecharīmuḍrā which is situated in the ākāśa-chakra (in the head) in the nirālamba (supportless) seat between the sun and moon (viz., Idā and Piṅgalā). When the tongue has been lengthened to the length of a kalā (digit) by the incision (of the frænum lingum) and by rubbing and milking it (viz., the tongue), fix the gaze between the two eyebrows and close the hole in the skull with
the tongue reversed. This is khecharīmuḍrā. When the tongue and the chiṭṭa (mind) both move in the ākāś (khecharī), then the person with his tongue raised up becomes immortal. Firmly pressing the yoni (perineum) by the left heel, stretching out the right leg, grasping the feet with both hands and inhaling the air through the nostrils, practise kaṇtha-banḍha, retaining the air upwards. By that, all afflictions are destroyed; then poison is digested as if it were nectar. Asthma, splenetic disease, the turning up of the anus and the numbness of the skin are removed. This is the means of conquering prāṇa and destroying death. Pressing the yoni by the left heel, place the other foot over the left thigh: inhale the air, rest the chin on the chest, contract the yoni and contemplate, (as far as possible), your Āṭmā as situated within your mind. Thus is the direct perception (of truth) attained.
"Inhaling the prāṇa from outside and filling the stomach with it, centre the prāṇa with the mind in the middle of the navel, at the tip of the nose and at the toes during the sanḍhyās (sunset and sunrise) or at all times. (Thus) the yogin is freed from all diseases and fatigue. By centring his prāṇa at the tip of his nose, he obtains mastery over the element of air; by centring it at the middle of his navel, all diseases are destroyed; by centring it at the toes, his body becomes light. He who drinks the air (drawn) through the tongue destroys fatigue, thirst and diseases. He who drinks the air with his mouth during the two sanḍhyās and the last two hours of the night, within three months the auspicious Sarasvaṭī (goddess of speech) is present in his vāk (speech) viz., (he becomes eloquent and learned in his speech). In six months, he is free from all diseases. Drawing the air by the tongue, retain the air at the root of the tongue. The wise man thus drinking nectar enjoys all prosperity. Fixing the Āṭmā in the Āṭmā itself in the middle of the eyebrows, (having inhaled) through Idā and breaking through that (centre) thirty times, even a sick man is freed from disease. He who draws the air through the nādis and retains it for twenty-four minutes in the navel and in
the sides of the stomach becomes freed from disease. He who for the space of a month during the three sanḍhyās (sunset, sunrise, and midnight or noon) draws the air through the tongue, pierces thirty times and retains his breath in the middle of his navel, becomes freed from all fevers and poisons. He who retains the prāṇa together with the mind at the tip of his nose even for the space of a muhūrṭa (forty-eight minutes), destroys all sins that were committed by him during one hundred births.
"Through the samyama of ṭāra (Om), he knows all things. By retaining the mind at the tip of his nose, he acquires a knowledge of Inḍra-world; below that, he acquires a knowledge of Agni-(fire) world. Through the samyama of chiṭṭa in the eye, he gets a knowledge of all worlds: in the ear, a knowledge of Yama-(the god of death) world: in the sides of the ear, a knowledge of Nṛṛṭi-world: in the back of it (the ear), a knowledge of Varuṇa-world: in the left ear, a knowledge of Vāyu-world: in the throat, a knowledge of Soma-(moon) world: in the left eye, a knowledge of Śiva-world: 1 in the head, a knowledge of Brahmā-world: in the soles of the feet, a knowledge of Aṭala world: 2 in the feet, a knowledge of Viṭala world: in the ankles, a knowledge of Niṭala (rather Suṭala) world: in the calves, a knowledge of Suṭala (rather Ṭalāṭāla world): in the knees, a knowledge of Mahāṭala world: in the thighs, a knowledge of Rasāṭala world: in the loins, a knowledge of Ṭalāṭala (rather Pāṭāla) world: in the navel, a knowledge of Bhūrloka (earth-world): in the stomach, a knowledge of Bhuvar (world): in the heart, a knowledge of Suvar (world): in the place above the heart, a knowledge of Mahar world: in the throat, a knowledge of Jana world: in the middle of the brows, a knowledge of Ṭapa world: in the head, a knowledge of Saṭya world.
"By conquering ḍharma and aḍharma, one knows the past and the future. By centring it on the sound of every creature, a knowledge of the cry (or language) of the
animal is produced. By centring it on the sañchiṭa-karma (past karma yet to be enjoyed), a knowledge of one's previous births arises in him. By centring it on the mind of another, a knowledge of the mind (or thoughts) of others is induced. By centring it on the kāya-rūpa (or form of the body), other forms are seen. By fixing it on the bala (strength), the strength of persons like Hanūmān is obtained. By fixing it on the sun, a knowledge of the worlds arises. By fixing it on the moon, a knowledge of the constellation is produced. By fixing it on the Ḍhruva (Polar star) a perception of its motion is induced. By fixing it on his own (Self), one acquires the knowledge of Purusha; on the navel, he attains a knowledge of the kāya-vyūha (mystical arrangement of all the particles of the body so as to enable a person to wear out his whole karma in one life): on the well of the throat, freedom from hunger and thirst arises: on the Kūrma nādi (which is situated in the well of the throat), a firmness (of concentration) takes place. By fixing it on the tārā (pupil of the eye), he obtains the sight of the siḍḍhas (spiritual personages). By conquering the ākāś in the body, he is able to soar in the ākāś: (in short) by centring the mind in any place, he conquers the siḍḍhis appertaining to that place.
"Then comes praṭyāhāra, which is of five kinds. It is the drawing away of the organs from attaching themselves to the objects of senses. Contemplating upon everything that one sees as Āṭmā is praṭyāhāra. Renouncing the fruits of one's daily actions is praṭyāhāra. Turning away from all objects of sense is praṭyāhāra. Ḍhāraṇā in the eighteen important places (mentioned below) is praṭyāhāra, (viz.,) the feet, the toes, the ankles, the calves, the knees, the thighs, the anus, the penis, the navel, the heart, the well of the throat, the palate, the nose, the eyes, the middle of the brows, the forehead, and the head in ascending and descending orders.
"Then (comes) ḍhāraṇā. It is of three kinds, (viz.,) fixing the mind in the Āṭmā, bringing the external ākāś into the ākaś of the heart and contemplating the five mūrṭis (forms of ḍevaṭās) in the five elements—earth, āpas, fire, vāyu, and ākaś.
"Then comes ḍhyāna. It is of two kinds, saguṇa (with guṇas or quality) and nirguṇa (without quality). Saguṇa is the meditation of a mūrṭi. Nirguṇa is on the reality of Self.
"Samāḍhi is the union of the Jīvāṭmā (individual self) and the Paramāṭmā (higher self) without the threefold state, (viz., the knower, the known, and the knowledge). It is of the nature of extreme bliss and pure consciousness.
"Thus ends the first chapter of Śāṇdilya Upanishaḍ."
Then the Bṛahmarshi Śāṇdilya not obtaining the knowledge of Brahman in the four Veḍas, approached the Lord Aṭharvan and asked him: "What is it? Teach me the science of Brahman by which I shall obtain that which is most excellent."
Aṭharvan replied: "O Śāṇdilya, Brahman is saṭya, vijñāna and ananṭa in which all this (world) is interwoven, warp-wise and woof-wise, from which all originated and into which all are absorbed, and which being known makes everything else known. It is without hands and feet, without eyes and ears, without tongue or without body, and is unreachable and undefinable. From which, vāk (speech) and mind return, being unable to obtain (or reach) It. It is to be cognised by jñāna and yoga. 1 From which, prajñā of old sprang. That which is one and non-dual, that which pervades everything like ākāś, which is extremely subtle, without a blemish, actionless, saṭ (be-ness) only, the essence of the bliss of consciousness, beneficent, calm and immortal and which is beyond. That is Brahman. Thou art That. Know That by wisdom. He who is the one, the shining, the giver of the power of Āṭmā, the omniscient, the lord of all, and the inner soul of all beings, who lives in all beings, who is hidden in all beings and the source of all beings, who is reachable only through yoga and who creates, supports and destroys everything—He is Āṭmā. Know the several worlds in the Āṭma. Do not grieve, O knower of Āṭmā, thou shalt reach the end of pains."
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: "From the Brahman that is Om, imperishable, actionless, beneficial, saṭ (be-ness) only and supreme, how did this universe arise? How does it exist in It? And how is it absorbed in It? Please solve me this doubt."
Aṭharvan replied: The Supreme Brahman, the Truth, is the imperishable and the actionless. Then from the formless Brahman, three forms (or aspects) arose, (viz.,) nishkalā (partless,) sakalā (with parts), and sakalā-nishkalā (with and without parts). That which is saṭya, vijñāna and ānanḍa, That which is actionless, without any impurity, omnipresent, extremely subtle, having faces in every direction, undefinable and immortal—that is His nishkalā aspect. Maheśvara (the great Lord) who is black and yellow rules, with aviḍyā, mūlaprakṛṭi or māyā that is red, white, and black, and that is co-existent with Him. This is his sakalā-nishkalā aspect. Then the Lord desired (or willed) by his spiritual wisdom (thus): May I become many?; may I bring forth? Then from this Person who was contemplating and whose desires are fulfilled, three letters sprang up. Three vyāhṛṭis, 1 the three-footed Gāyaṭrī, 1 the three Veḍas, the three ḍevas, the three varṇas (colours or castes) and the three fires sprang. That Supreme Lord who is endowed with all kinds of wealth, who is all pervading, who is situated in the hearts of all beings, who is the Lord of māyā and whose form is māyā—He is Brahma. He is Vishṇu: He is Ruḍra: He is Inḍra: He is all the ḍevas: He is all the bhūṭas (elements or beings): He only is before: He only is behind: He only is on our left: He only is on our right: He only is below: He only is above: He only is the all. That form of him as Ḍaṭṭāṭreya, 2 who sports with his Śakṭi, who is kind to his devotees, who is brilliant as fire, resembling the petals or a red lotus and is of four hands, who is mild and shines sinlessly—this is His sakalā form."
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan, "O Lord, that which is Saṭ only and the essence of the bliss of consciousness—why is He called Parabrahman?"
Aṭharvan replied: "Because He increases bṛhaṭi and causes to increase everything (bṛhanṭi); so he is called Parabrahman. Why is He called Āṭmā? Since He obtains (āpnoṭi) everything, since He takes back everything and since He is everything, so he is called Āṭmā. Why is He called Maheśvara (the great Lord)? Since by the sound of the words Mahaṭ-Īśa (the great Lord) and by His own power, the great Lord governs everything. Why is He called Ḍaṭṭāṭreya? Because the Lord being extremely pleased with Aṭri (Ṛshi) who was performing a most difficult penance and who had expressed his desire to see Him who is light itself, offered Himself (ḍaṭṭa) as their son, and because the woman Anasūyā was his mother and Aṭri was his father. Therefore he who knows the (secret) meaning knows everything. He who always contemplates on the supreme that It is himself becomes a knower of Brahman. Here these ślokas (stanzas) occur (to memory). 'He who contemplates always the Lord of Lords and the ancient thus—as Ḍaṭṭāṭreya, the beneficent, the calm, of the colour of sapphire, one who delights in his own māyā and the Lord who has shaken off everything, as naked and as one whose whole body is besmeared with the holy ashes, who has matted hair, who is the Lord of all, who has four arms, who is bliss in appearance, whose eyes are like full-blown lotus, who is the store of jñāna and yoga, who is the spiritual instructor of all the worlds and who is dear to all the yogins, and one who is merciful towards His devotees, who is the witness of all and who is worshipped by all the siḍḍhas is freed from all sins and will attain (the Spirit).'
The One Aja (unborn) is ever located in the cave (of the heart) within the body. (Pṛṭhivī) the earth is His body; though He pervades the earth, it does not know Him. The waters are His body; though He pervades the waters, they do not know Him. Agni is His body; though He pervades agni, it does not know Him. Vāyu is His body; though He pervades vāyu, it does not know Him. Ākāś is His body; though He pervades ākāś, it does not know Him. Manas is His body; though He pervades manas, it does not know Him. Buḍḍhi is His body; though He pervades buḍḍhi, it does not know Him. Ahaṅkāra is His body; though He pervades ahaṅkāra, it does not know Him. Chiṭṭa is His body; though He pervades chiṭṭa, it does not know Him. Avyakṭa is His body; though He pervades avyakṭa, it does not know Him. Akshara is His body; though He pervades akshara, it does not know Him. Mṛṭyu is His body; though He pervades mṛṭyu, it does not know Him. He who is the inner soul of all creatures and the purifier of sins, is the one divine Lord Nārāyaṇa.
The wise should through the practice of deep meditation of Brahman leave off the (recurrent) conception of "I" and mine" in the body and the senses which are other than Āṭmā. Having known himself as Praṭyagāṭmā, the witness of buḍḍhi and its actions, one should ever think "So’ham" ("I am That") and leave off the idea of Āṭmā in all others. Shunning the pursuits of the world, the body and the Śāsṭras, set about removing the false attribution of self. In the case of a Yogin staying always in his own Āṭmā, his mind parishes having known his Āṭmā as the Āṭmā of all, through inference, Veḍas
and self-experience. Never giving the slightest scope to sleep, worldly talk, sounds, etc., think of Āṭmā, (in yourself) to be the (supreme) Āṭmā. Shun at a distance like a chaṅdāla (the thought of) the body, which is generated out of the impurities of parents and is composed of excreta and flesh. Then you will become Brahman and be (in a) blessed (state). O Sage, having dissolved (Jīva-) Āṭmā into Paramāṭmā with the thought of its being partless, like the ether of a jar in the universal ether, be ever in a state of taciturnity. Having become that which is the seat of all Āṭmās and the self-resplendent, give up the macrocosm and microcosm like an impure vessel. Having merged into Chiḍāṭmā, which is ever blissful, the conception of "I" which is rooted in the body, and having removed the (conception of) Liṅga (here the sign of separateness), become ever the Kevala (alone). Having known "I am that Brahman" in which alone the universe appears like a town in a mirror, become one that has performed (all) his duty, O sinless one. The ever-blissful and the self-effulgent One being freed from the grip of ahaṅkāra attains its own state, like the spotless moon becoming full (after eclipse).
With the extinction of actions, there arises the extinction of chinṭā. From it arises the decay of vāsanās; and from the latter, arises moksha; and this is called Jīvanmukṭi. Looking upon everything in all places and times as Brahman brings about the destruction of vāsanās through the force of vāsanās of sāṭṭvic nature. Carelessness in Brahmanishthā by (or meditation of Brahman) should not in the least be allowed (to creep in). Knowers of Brahman style (this) carelessness, in Brāhmic science, as death (itself). Just as the moss (momentarily) displaced (in a tank) again resumes its original position, in a minute, so Māyā envelops even the wise, should they be careless (even for a moment). He who attains the Kaivalya state during life becomes a Kevala even after death of his body. Ever devoted to samāḍhi, become a nirvikalpa (or the changeless one), O sinless. one. The granṭhi (or knot) of the heart, full of ajñāna, is broken completely only when one sees his Āṭmā as secondless through nirvikalpa samāḍhi.
Now, having strengthened the conception of Āṭmā and well given up that of "I" in the body, one should be indifferent as he would be towards jars, cloth, etc. From Brahma down to a pillar, all the upāḍhis are only unreal. Hence one should see (or cognize) his Āṭmā as all-full and existing by itself (alone). Brahma is Swayam (Āṭmā); Vishṇu is Āṭmā; Ruḍra is: Āṭma; Inḍra is Āṭmā; all this universe is Āṭmā and there is nothing but Āṭmā. By expelling (from the mind) without any remainder all objects which are superimposed on one's Āṭmā, one becomes himself Parabrahman the full, the secondless and the actionless. How can there be the heterogeneity of the universe of saṅkalpa and vikalpa in that One Principle which is immutable, formless and homogeneous? When there is no difference between the seer, the seen, and sight, there being the decayless and Chiḍāṭmā, full like the ocean at the end of a Kalpa and effulgent, all darkness, the cause of false perception, merges in it. How can there be heterogeneity in that one supreme Principle which is alike? How can there be heterogeneity in the highest Ṭaṭṭva which is One? Who has observed any heterogeneity in sushupṭi (the dreamless sleep), where there is happiness only? This vikalpa has its root in chiṭṭa only. When chiṭṭa is not, there is nothing. Therefore unite the chiṭṭa with Paramāṭman in its Praṭyāgāṭmic state. If one knows Āṭmā as unbroken bliss in itself, then he drinks always the juice (or essence) of bliss in his Āṭmā, whether internally or externally.
The fruit of vairāgya is boḍha (spiritual wisdom); the fruit of boḍha is uparaṭi (renunciation); śānṭi (sweet patience) is attained out of the enjoyment of the bliss of one's Ming, and this śānṭi is the fruit of uparaṭi. If the latter in each of these is absent, the former is useless. Nivṛṭṭi (or the return path) leads to the highest contentment and (spiritual) bliss is said to be beyond all analogy. That which has Māyā as its upāḍhi is the womb of the world; that true one which has the attribute of omniscience, etc., and has the variegated mystery is denoted by the word "Ṭaṭ" (that). That is called Apara (the other or inferior) which shines through meditation upon the idea and the
world asmaṭ 1 and the consciousness of which is developed by antaḥkaraṇa. By separating the upāḍhis Māyā and aviḍyā from Para and Jīva (cosmic and human Āṭmās respectively), one realises Parabrahman which is partless and Sachchiḍānanḍa. Making the mind dwell upon such sentences (or ideas) as the above constitutes śravaṇa (hearing). It becomes manana (contemplation) when such ideas are quieted (in one) through logical reasoning. When (their) meaning is confirmed through these (two processes), the concentration of the mind on it alone constitutes niḍiḍhyāsana. That is called samāḍhi in which the chiṭṭa, rising above the conception of the contemplator and contemplation, merges gradually into the contemplated, like a light undisturbed by the wind. Even the mental states are not known (at the time when one is within the scope of Āṭmā). But they are only inferred from the recollection which takes place after samāḍhi. Through this samāḍhi are destroyed crores of karmas which have accumulated during cycles of births without beginning and pure ḍharma is developed. Knowers of Yoga call this samāḍhi, ḍharma-megha (cloud), inasmuch as it showers nectarine drops of karma in great quantities, when all the hosts of vāsanās are destroyed entirely through this, and when the accumulated karmas, virtuous and sinful, are rooted out. Then that in which speech was hidden till now, appears no longer so, and shines as Saṭ; and direct cognition reveals itself, like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand. Vairāgya begins from where the vāsanās cease to arise towards objects of enjoyment. The cessation of the rising of the idea of "I" is the highest limit of buḍḍhi; uparaṭi begins from where the mental states once destroyed do not again arise. That ascetic is said to possess Sṭhiṭaprajñā who enjoys bliss always and whose mind is absorbed in Brahman that is formless and actionless. That state of mind is termed prajñā that realises the oneness of Brahman and Āṭmā after deep inquiry, and that has the vṛṭṭi of nirvikalpa and chinmāṭra. He who possesses this always is a Jivanmukṭa. He is a Jivanmukṭa who has, neither the conception of "I" in the body and the senses, nor
the conception of another (different from himself) in everything else. He is a Jivanmukṭa who sees through his prajñā no difference between his own Āṭmā and Brahman as well as between Brahman and the universe. He is a Jivanmukṭa who preserves equanimity of mind, either when revered by the good or reviled by the vicious. One who has cognized the true nature of Brahman is not subject to rebirth as before. But were he so subjected, then he is not a true knower, the knowing of Brahman being external only. A man is subject to prārabḍha 1 so long as he is affected by pleasure, etc. The attainment of a result is always preceded by action; and nowhere is it without karma. Through the cognition "I am Brahman" are destroyed the karmas accumulated during hundreds of crores of previous births, like the actions in the dreaming state (that are destroyed) during the waking state.
An ascetic having known himself as associateless and indifferent like ether, is not at all affected by any of his karmas at any time. Just as the ether is not affected by the alcoholic smell through its contact with a pot, so Āṭmā is not affected by the guṇas produced by its upāḍhi. The prārabḍha karma that has begun to act before the dawn of jñāna is not checked by it; and one should reap its fruit, as in the case of an arrow discharged at a target. An arrow that is discharged towards an object with the idea that it is a tiger, does not stop when it (the tiger) is found to be a cow; but it (even) pierces the mark through its speed, without stopping. When one realises his Āṭmā as free from old age and death, then how will prārabḍha affect him? Prārabḍha accomplishes (its work) only when one considers his body as At ma. This conception of Āṭmā as body is not at all a desirable one; so it should be given up along with prārabḍha, since it is simply a delusion to attribute prārabḍha to this body. How can there be reality to that which is superimposed upon another? How can there be birth to that which is not real? How can there be death to that which is not born? How can there be prārabḍha to that which is unreal? The Veḍa speaks of prārabḍha in an external sense only, to satisfy those
foolish persons that doubt, saying: "If jñāna can destroy all the results of ajñāna (such as body, etc.), then whence is the existence of this body to such a one?" but not to inculcate to the wise the existence of the body.
Āṭmā is all-full, beginningless, endless, immeasurable, unchangeable, replete with Saṭ, Chiṭ, and Ānanḍa, decayless, the one essence, the eternal, the differentiated, the plenum, the endless, having its face everywhere, the one that can neither be given up nor taken up, the one that can neither be supported nor be made to support, the guṇaless, the actionless, the subtle, the changeless, the stainless, the indescribable, the true nature of one's Āṭmā, above the reach of speech and mind, the one full of Saṭ, the self-existent, the immaculate, the enlightened, and the incomparable; such is Brahman, one only without a second. There are not in the least many. He who knows his Āṭmā himself through his own cognition, as the one who is not restricted by any, is a Siḍḍha (one that has accomplished his object), who has identified his Āṭmā with the one changeless Āṭmā. Whither is this world gone, then? How did it appear? Where is it absorbed? It was seen by me just now, but now it is gone. What a great miracle! What is fit to be taken in? and what to be rejected? What is other (than Āṭmā)? And what is different (from It)? In this mighty ocean of Brahman full of the nectar of undivided bliss, I do not see, hear, or know anything. I remain in my Āṭmā only and in my own nature of Saṭ, Ānanḍarūpa. I am an asaṅga (or the associateless). I am an asaṅga. I am without any attributes. I am Hari (the Lord taking away sin). I am the quiescent, the endless, the all-full and the ancient. I am neither the agent nor the enjoyer.
or More of the Ten Yogic Mudras
The ten chief mudras (seals, locks) are mulabandhamudra,
uddiyanabandhamudra, jalandharabandhamudra, mahavedhamudra,
mahamudra, mahabandhamudra, viparitakaranimudra, sakticalanamudra,
vajrolimudra (yonimudra), and khecarimudra-. These ten
mudras are the immortal experiences of yoga. An advanced sabijayoga
sadhaka, by the thorough sadhana of yoga, becomes acquainted with
these mudras. Mudras are developed forms of asanas. When one
does asanas, the body organs are mainly involved and prana is
secondary; but in performing mudras, the main factor is prana, and the
body organs are secondary. The same mudra may be repeated in
various asanas. This proves that the asana is secondary, and the
process of prana is primary. Also, several mudras can occur together
during one asana.
There are many mudras, but the above ten are the most important.
Mudras are connected with specific cakras.
Sit on the floor, stretch the right leg out. Fold the left leg and press the
left heel hard on the sivani (the area between the anus and the genitals).
Hold the toes of the outstretched foot with both hands, holding the air
outside the body after exhalation. Jalandharabandha (throat lock) is
performed and the body bent forward until the head touches the right
knee. This mudra is called mahamudra. This mudra can be done using
the right heel instead of the left. Mahamudra is connected with the
muladhara cakra. When this mudra is mastered, it also becomes
connected with the sahasrara cakra.
Sit on the floor and press the sivani with the right heel, and place the
left heel at the base of the penis. Then contract the anus and pull the
navel hard toward the spine. This will raise the apana. This is called
mulabandhamudra and it is connected with the muladhara cakra.
Sakticalanamudra is the basis of all other mudras. It is the prime
secret of all yoga. It is therefore kept secret. A guru passes on this
secret personally only to the best sadhaka disciples who are capable of
living the life of an ascetic.
A general reference to sakticalanamudra follows. After having
assumed siddhasana, apply pressure on the kundalini that has travelled
up to below the navel with the closed fist of the right hand. This makes
prana attract apana gradually into the manipura, anahata, visuddha,
ajna, sahasrara, and other higher cakras. It should be remembered that
as long as apana is not weakened, prana cannot attract apana into the
higher cakras. This conflict goes on between apana and prana for
many years. In the end, when prana conquers apana and becomes
very strong, the defeated apana starts rising into higher cakras.
During this stage the prana arouses kundalini over and over, but the
kundalini defeats prana each time and returns to dormancy. However,
when the prana becomes victorious, kundalini raises its head and
begins to ascend and help the sadhaka to achieve sabijasamadhi.
When kundalini moves away from the entrance of the susumna, then
yonimudra will begin.
Without sakticalanamudra, khecarimudra and yonimudra do not occur.
Sakticalanamudra is connected with the svadhisthana cakra. When
sakticalanamudra is complete, then it also becomes connected with the
Assume siddhasana or muktasana, folding the right leg and placing
the right heel so as to press the sivani. Place the left heel so pressure is
put on the root of the penis. Do all three bandhas (locks) and practice
sagarbha or sabija pranayama. This is called mahabandhamudra. -
Automatically the sadhaka at this stage will experience
sakticalanamudra, khecarimudra, mulabandhamudra,
uddiyanabandhamudra, and jalandharabandhamudra during the
pranayama. As a result, he can obtain bindu (spot, drop of fluid) in part.
This mudra is connected with the muladhara and sahasrara cakras.
Mahabandhamudra only occurs when a sadhaka reaches the final
stages of sabijasamadhi. A beginner cannot practice this mudra in its
complete form, and it is useless to him.
In uddiyanabandhamudra, while one performs a long exhalation the
abdomen is pulled toward the spine. In the beginning,
mulabandhamudra, uddiyanabandhamudra, and
jalandharabandhamudra are done in siddhasana. Later on they happen
in any posture. When these three mudras happen simultaneously, it is
called tribandha. In the language of the Tantras, tribandha is symbolized
as Lord Siva's or Goddess Sakti's trident. When tribandha happens
along with jihvabandhamudra (khecarimudra), tribandha becomes
secondary in importance. An ordinary sadhaka should do the mudras
only after properly practicing pranayama. Uddiyanabandhamudra is
connected with the manipura and sahasrara cakras.
If the chin is firmly pressed onto the chest in any asana at the end of
inhalation or exhalation, so that the throat is constricted, then
jalandharabandhamudra has happened. After the inhalation or
exhalation the breath is held. During this mudra, prana moves up the
pascimamadhyamarga (rear median path) and rests in the sahasrara
cakra. Murcha and bhramari pranayamas happen during this mudra.
Start by lying stretched out on the back. Then, while exhaling, raise
the legs until the trunk is resting on the shoulders, the hands supporting
the back and the gaze fixed on the navel, concentrating on the manipura
cakra. Then hold the breath. This is viparitakaranimudra. While this
mudra resembles sarvangasana, note that in sarvangasana the chest
and legs are in a straight line, but in viparitakaranimudra, only the
forearms and legs are in a straight line. Sarvangasana is a posture
only, and is done without any special ritual, but viparitakaranimudra,
being a mudra, is done as follows. During viparitakaranimudra, the
genitals are repeatedly contracted inward. In the Sivasamhita this ritual is
recommended and is called sirsasana. Sirsasana is the complete form
8. Khecarimudra or Jihvabandhamudra
A beginner in yoga does not experience khecarimudra. Only a
sadhaka who has had pranotthana and experienced sakticalanamudra
perfectly will come close to khecarimudra.
Khecarimudra may happen in any posture. In this mudra the tongue
enters the tenth orifice, the pharynx, and the gaze becomes fixed
between the eyebrows.
A sadhaka who cuts the ligament under the tongue after reading
about khecarimudra or following the directions of an imperfect guru
cannot reach samadhi or other yogic states by practicing khecarimudra.
The blessings of God or Guru lead to the awakening of kundalini, which
in turn leads to khecarimudra. First, powerful yogic fires cut the
ligaments under the tongue so that the moving and milking actions of the
tongue occur. In the end, the tongue tries to, then succeeds in entering
the kapalakuhara (the tenth orifice).
At the end of sabijasamadhi, when one experiences vajroli or yoni
mudra, the tongue becomes hard and erect like the penis and causes
apana to ascend, deflowering the brahmagranthi, and the yogi becomes
When khecarimudra is complete, a yogi will taste amrta (nectar). As a
result, the old cells are destroyed and replaced by the new cells which
make up the Divine Body. Nirbijasamadhi begins only after Divine Body
Khecarimudra is connected with the muladhara, the visuddha, and the
Assume mahabandhamudra. Inhale while doing khecarimudra and fix
the gaze firmly on ajna cakra. Then bend the head backwards, spread
out the hands, and bend forward until the palms of the hands lie on the
floor in front of the body. The buttocks will rise off the floor. Lastly, come
back to the original posture and hit one side of the body repeatedly with
a closed fist.
During mulabandhamudra, when the prana and apana unite, a
sadhaka yogi will experience plavini pranayama. As a result, air fills the
body cavity, and when one side is hit repeatedly, a roaring sound "hum"
emerges from the mouth. One should remember that mahamudra,
mahabandhamudra, and mahavedhamudra are to be practiced
simultaneously. Mahavedhamudra is connected with the ajna cakra.
This mudra occurs only in the last stages of sabijasamadhi and is
useless to an ordinary sadhaka.
10. Vajrolimudra or Yonimudra
A sadhaka can push a lubricated rubber catheter into the orifice of the
penis, beginning by pushing it up one inch and, with practice, going up
to twelve inches. This is done only to clear the urinary tract and not to
draw up milk or lost semen at the end of coitus, which is not vajroli, but
only an error based on misunderstanding.
Assume siddhasana. Raise the united prana and apana to the
forehead, close the eyes with the respective index and middle fingers,
close the ears with the thumbs, the nostrils with the ring fingers, and the
lips with the little fingers. Concentrate the gaze and the thoughts on the
bhrumadhya, then contract the genitals inward.
Until yonimudra is obtained, making the semen ascendent, a sadhaka
will not understand its greatness. Only after achieving
mulabandhamudra will a sadhaka be able to go on to yonimudra.
Attaining the union of prana and apana is as difficult as making the
Ganges ascend to heaven. The yogi who can achieve yonimudra
achieves sabijasamadhi and the Divine Body filled with yogic fire.
Yonimudra is connected with the muladhara and the sahasrara cakras.
It occurs only in the last stages of sabijasamadhi and is useless to an
ordinary sadhaka. This mudra can be used to gain insight into the
ordinary meditation of pratyahara.
If these mudras are arranged according to the viewpoint of yoga, the
sequence is: mulabandhamudra, uddiyanabandhamudra,
jalandharabandhamudra, sakticalanamudra, khecarimudra,
viparitakaranimudra, mahabandhamudra, mahamudra,
mahavedhamudra, and vajroli or yoni mudra.
These mudras can be divided into different types of foci for
pancadharana (five concentrations): parthividharana, ambhasidharana,
agneyidharana or vaisvanaridharana, vayavidharana, and
akasidharana. The five mudras bhucari, agocari, cacari, and others, are
also manifested in these. Of secondary importance are mudras like
tadagi, mandavi, sambhavi, nabho, asvini, pasini, kaki, matangini,
bhujangini, sanksobhini, dravani, akarsani, vasi, unmada, mahankusa,
manduki, and others.
- Gorkhnaht satakam book-Yoga-Mimansa
- Hatha Yoga Pradipika: Sanskrit and English
- The Splendours And Dimensions Of Yoga -Hatha yoga -book
- Natha North india-A carnival of parting: the tales of King Bharthari and King Gopi Chand as
- The philosophy of Jñānadeva: as gleaned from the Amṛtānubhava-book
- The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom-Natha sidha and Hatha yoga -book
- Kundalini: the mother-power-Matsyendranath-book
- Sonic theology: Hinduism and sacred sound-gorakh nath- book
- Yantra-Mantra Tantra and Occult Sciences--sabar mantra gorksh nath- book
- Sharing Jesus holistically with the Buddhist world-Matsyendranath and gorakh nath-book
- Yoga: Immortality and Freedom-Matsyendranath and gorakh nath-book
- Discovery of Spiritual India-Matsyendranath and gorakh nath-book
- Maha sidha Matsyendranath -Tāntric art of Orissa -book
- Maṇimahesh Chambā Kailāsh-Gorkshnath - book
- The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India-Nath Sidha
- The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Yoga: HathaYoga
- Gorakhnāth and the Kānphaṭa yogīs-book
- Philosophy of Gorakhnath with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha-book
- Gorakhnath mandir,gorakhpur(U.P)-India
- Gorakhnath (Gorakshanath) temple-Junagarh (Junagadh) & Girnar mountain – photo gallery
- Nath yogi Albums
- Guru Yogi Matsyendranatha Maharadža
- Shri Guru Gorakshanath Mandir, Haridwar. Pujari - Shri Vilasnath ji Maharaj
- Interview with Guru Matsyendranath on Ukrain TV, Krivoy Rog
- Interview with Yogi Matsyendranath Maharaj on Moscow TV, part 2
- Interview with Yogi Matsyendranath Maharaj on Moscow TV, part1
- Guru Nath Tradīcijā" (Latvia)
- Natha-Tradition (Israel)
- Nathas livejournal
- Natha samradaya-Natha (Moscow)
- Natha-Sampradaya photo
- Natha-Sampradaya photo
- : Mandir Shri Bhani Nath Ji Ka Dhora
- International Nath Order Popular pages
- Pushkar Gorakhshnath Temple-
- Pushkar Gorakhshnath Temple
- Haridwar Gorakshnath Temple
- Mahamaheshvaracarya Goraksnath
- The Nath Sampradaya and International Nath Order
- International Nath Order
- Hiamchal -Baba gorkhnath Ji with Trishul at Shah Talai
- Navnath -puja
- Shri HinghlajMata - Balochistan
- Shridev Jasnath ji- Asan
- Kadri Manjunatha Temple
- DHUNA Shri Gorakh Nath Ji- Shri Goraknath Teela,
- THANESHWAR NATH MAHAYOGI JAGRTH DHUNA,
- Yogi Matsyendranath Maharaj- russian
- Tradition of Nathas
- Sri Guru Yogi Matsyendranath Maharaj- russian
- NATH YOGIS-Sacred Places
- Shri Amrithnathji
- SHRI BABA MASTNATH MATH, ASTHAL BOHAR, ROHTAK
- THE VANSHWALI OF TILLADHISH
- GADDI DARGAH TILLA SHRI GURU GORAKH NATH MANDIR
- Statues of Gorakhpur Mandir
- Images of the chakras from Gorakhpur Mandir
- Murals depicting asanas from the library of Gorakhpur Mandir
- Illustrations of parables from Gorakhpur Mandir
- Mantra'Oom Guru Gorakshya, MaMa Rakshya Rakshya
- Nath Yogis at Gorakh Nath Temple, Mrigasthali
- Temples in Nepal and the World
- Gprkshnath namah
- Gorakshyapeeth Siddhachal Mrigasthali
- Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga
- Goraksha , Hatha Yoga, Origin
- Mahayogi, Yogacharya, Guru Gorakhnath
- Der Weg des YOGA – Was ist Yoga ?
- Yoga, Literatur, eine Übersicht
- SONGS ON YOGA of the Mahārāṣṭrian Nāth Yogis
- Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati
- YOGA, TREE AND OUR UNIVERSE
- hatha yoga – siddha siddhanta paddhati
- Gorakshanath the Originar of Hatha-Yoga
- Mahayogi, Yogacharya, Guru Gorakhnath
- Shri HinghlajMata - Balochistan
- Shri HinghlajMata - Balochistan
- Guru Nath Tradīcijā" (Latvia)
- The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India-Nath Sidha
- The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India-Nath Sidha
- Kundalini: the mother-power-Matsyendranath-book
- Kundalini: the mother-power-Matsyendranath-book
- Nath Samradaya Itihas
- TEMPLO DO YOGA
- gorkhnath mandir -gorkhapur
- Babaji, Mahant Shri Narhari Nath ji By Shri Amritnath Ashram Nath
- Natha tradition -paris
- GURU GORKHANATH AND KING BHARTHARI ,KING GOPI CHAND
- Nath Yoga Math-Austria( Europe)
- Nathas and Yoga
- The Nâthayogîs in Mahârâshtra,
- NAATHA SAMPRADAYA-NAGAPUR -
- Bharthhari Gufa - Nath yogi- (Udayanath)
- Bharthhari Gufa - Nath yogi-(Minanath)
- Bharthhari Gufa - Nath yogi-Santhosh naht ji
- Yogi Krishnanath- Rome, Italy
- Shankar Nath, SP - Brasil
- Gorakhpur. Mandir
- Gorakhpur. Mandir
- Gorakhpur. Mandir
- Guru Yogi Matsyendranath's Pupils
- Drawings and pictures of Nathas and Siddhas
- Yogi Matsyendranatha-Russia (Bryansk)
- Drawings and pictures of Nathas and Siddhas
- Очередной выпуск журнала "Адеш"!
- Натха-йога даршана
- Guru Gorakh Nath Mandir , New Delhi
- NATH YOGIS