Chiṭṭa has two causes, vāsanās and (prāṇa) vāyu. If-one of them is controlled, then both are controlled. Of these two, a person should control (prāṇa) vāyu always through moderate food, postures, and thirdly śakṭi-chāla. I shall explain the nature of these. Listen to it, O Gauṭama. One should take a sweet and nutritious food, leaving a fourth (of his stomach) unfilled) in order to please Śiva (the patron of yogins). This is called moderate food. Posture herein required is of two kinds, paḍma and vajra. Placing the two heels over the two opposite thighs (respectively) is the paḍma (posture) which is the destroyer of all sins. Placing one heel below the mūlakanḍa and the other over it and sitting with the neck, body and head erect is the vajra posture. The śakṭi (mentioned above) is only kunḍalinī. A wise man should take it up from its place (viz., the navel, upwards) to the middle of the eyebrows. This is called śakṭi-chāla. In practising it, two things are necessary,
Sarasvatīchālana and the restraint of prāṇa (breath). Then through practice, kunḍalinī (which is spiral) becomes straightened. Of these two, I shall explain to you first Sarasvaṭī-chālaṇa. It is said by the wise of old that Sarasvaṭī is no other than Arunḍhaṭī. ) Idā (left nostril), he should assume firmly paḍma-posture and should lengthen (inwards) 4 digits the ākāś of 12 digits. Then the wise man should bind the (sarasvaṭī) nādi by means of this lengthened (breath) and holding firmly together(both his ribs near the navel) by means of the forefingers and thumbs of both hands, (one hand on each side) should stir up kunḍalinī with all his might from right to left often and often; for a period of two muhūrṭas (48 minutes), he should be stirring it up fearlessly. Then he should draw up a little when kunḍalinī enters sushumnā. By this means, kunḍalinī enters the mouth of sushumnā. Prāṇa (also) having left (that place) enters of itself the sushumnā (along with kunḍalinī). By compressing the neck, one should also expand the navel. Then by shaking sarasvaṭī, prāṇa goes above (to) the chest. Through the contraction of the neck, prays, goes above from the chest. Sarasvaṭī who has sound in her womb should be shaken (or thrown into vibration) each day. Therefore by merely shaking it, one is cured of diseases. Gulma (a splenetic disease), jaloḍara (dropsy), plīha (a splenetic disease) and all other diseases arising within the belly, are undoubtedly destroyed by shaking this Śakṭi.
I shall now briefly describe to you prāṇāyāma. Prāṇa is the vāyu that moves in the body and its restraint within is known as kumbhaka. It is of two kinds, sahiṭa and kevala. 4 One should practise sahiṭa till he gets kevala. There are four bheḍas (lit., piercings or divisions) viz., sūrya, ujjāyī, śiṭalī, and bhasṭrī.
The kumbhaka associated with these four is called sahiṭa kumbhaka.
Being seated in the paḍma posture upon a pure and pleasant seat which gives ease and is neither too high nor too low, and in a place which is pure, lovely and free from pebbles, etc., and which for the length of a bow is free from cold, fire, and water, one should shake (or throw into vibration) Sarasvaṭī; slowly inhaling the breath from outside, as long as he desires, through the right nostril, he should exhale it through the left nostril. He should exhale it after purifying his skull (by forcing the breath up). This destroys the four kinds of evils caused by vāyu as also by intestinal worms. This should be done often and it is this which is spoken of as sūryabheḍa.
Closing the mouth and drawing up slowly the breath as before with the nose through both the nādis (or nostrils) and retaining it in the space between the heart and the neck, one should exhale it through the left nostril. This destroys the heat caused in the head as well as the phlegm in the throat. It removes all diseases, purifies his body and increases the (gastric) fire within. It removes also the evils arising in the nādis, jaloḍara (water-belly or dropsy) and ḍhāṭus. This kumbhaka is called ujjāyī and may be practised (even) when walking or standing.
Drawing up the breath as before through the tongue with (the hissing sound of) स and retaining it as before, the wise man should slowly exhale it through (both) the nostrils. This is called śīṭalī kumbhaka and destroys diseases, such as gulma, plīha, consumption, bile, fever, thirst, and poison.
Seated in the paḍma posture with belly and neck erect, the wise man should close the mouth and exhale with care through the nostrils. Then he should inhale a little with speed up to the heart, so that the breath may fill the space with noise between the neck and skull. Then he should exhale in the same way and inhale often and often. Just as the bellows of a smith are moved (viz., stuffed with air within and then the air is let out), so he should move the air within his body. If the body gets tired, then he should inhale through the right nostril. If his belly is full of vāyu, then he should press well his nostrils with
all his fingers except his forefinger, and performing kumbhaka as before, should exhale through the left nostril. This frees one from diseases of fire in (or inflammation of) the throat, increases the gastric fire within, enables one to know the kunḍalinī, produces purity removing sins, gives happiness and pleasure and destroys phlegm which is the bolt (or obstacle) to the door at the mouth of brahmanādi (viz., sushumnā). It pierces also the three granṭhis (or knots) differentiated through the three guṇas. This kumbhaka is known as bhasṭrī and should especially be performed.
Through these four ways when kumbhaka is near (or is about to be performed.), the sinless yogin should practise the three bandhas. The first is called mūlabanḍha. The second is called uddiyāṇa, and the third is jālanḍhara. Their nature will be thus described. Apāna (breath) which has a downward tendency is forced up by one bending down. This process is called mūlabanḍha. When apāna is raised up and reaches the sphere of agni (fire), then the flame of agni grows long, being blown about by vāyu. Then agni and apāna come to (or commingle with) prāṇa in a heated state. Through this agni which is very fiery, there arises in the body the flaming (or the fire) which rouses the sleeping kunḍalinī through its heat. Then this kunḍalinī makes a hissing noise, becomes erect like a serpent beaten with stick and enters the hole of brahmanādi (sushumnā). Therefore yogins should daily practise mūlabanḍha often. Uddiyāṇa should be performed at the end of kumbhaka and at the beginning of expiration. Because prāṇa uddīyaṭē (viz., goes up) the sushumnā in this banḍha, therefore it called uddiyāṇa by the yogins. Being seated in the vajra posture, and holding firmly the two toes by the two hands, he should press at the kanḍa and at the place near the two ankles. Then he should gradually upbear the ṭāna 3 (thread or nādi) which is on the western side first to uḍara (the upper part of the abdomen above the navel), then to the heart and then to the neck. When prāṇa reaches the sanḍhi (junction) of navel, slowly it removes
the impurities (or diseases) in the navel. Therefore this should be frequently practised. The banḍha called jālanḍhara should be practised at the end of kumbhaka. This jālanḍhara is of the form of the contraction of the neck and is an impediment to the passage of vāyu (upwards). When the neck is contracted at once by bending downwards (so that the chin may touch the breast), prāṇa goes through brahmanādi on the western ṭāna in the middle. Assuming the seat as mentioned before, one should stir up sarasvaṭī and control prāṇa. On the first day kumbhaka should be done four times; on the second day it should be done ten times, and then five times separately; on the third day, twenty times will do, and afterwards kumbhaka should be performed with the three banḍhas and with an increase of five times each day.
Diseases are generated in one's body through the following causes, viz., sleeping in daytime, late vigils over night, excess of sexual intercourse, moving in crowd, the checking of the discharge of urine and fæces, the evil of unwholesome food and laborious mental operation with prāṇa. If a yogin is afraid of such diseases (when attacked by them), he says, "my diseases have arisen from my practice of yoga." Then he will discontinue this practice. This is said to be the first obstacle to yoga The second (obstacle) is doubt; the third is carelessness; the fourth, laziness; the fifth, sleep; the sixth, the not leaving of objects (of sense); the seventh, erroneous perception; the eighth, sensual objects; the ninth, want of faith; and the tenth, the failure to attain the truth of yoga. A wise man should abandon these ten obstacles after great deliberation. The practice of prāṇāyāma should be performed daily with the mind firmly fixed on Truth. Then chiṭṭa is absorbed in sushumnā, and prāṇa (therefore) never moves. When the impurities (of chiṭṭa) are thus removed and prāṇa is absorbed in sushumnā, he becomes a (true) yogin. Apāna, which has a downward tendency should be raised up with effort by the contraction (of the anus), and this is spoken of as mūlabanḍhā. Apāna thus raised up mixes with agni and
then they go up quickly to the seat of prāṇa. Then prāṇa and apāna uniting with one another go to kunḍalinī, which is coiled up and asleep. Kuṇdalinī being heated by agni and stirred up by vāyu, extends her body in the mouth of sushumnā, pierces the brahmagranṭhi formed of rajas, and flashes at once like lightning at the mouth of sushumnā. Then it goes up at once through vishṇūgranṭhi to the heart. Then it goes up through ruḍragranṭhi and above it to the middle of the eyebrows; having pierced this place, it goes up to the maṇdala (sphere) of the moon. It dries up the moisture produced by the moon in the anāhaṭachakra having sixteen petals. 1 When the blood is agitated through the speed of prāṇa, it becomes bile from its contact with the sun, after which it goes to the sphere of the moon where it becomes of the nature of the flow of pure phlegm. How does it (blood) which is very cold become hot when it flows there? (Since) at the same time the intense white form of moon is speedily heated. Then being agitated, it goes up. Through taking in this, chiṭṭa which was moving amidst sensual objects externally, is restrained there. The novice enjoying this high state attains peace and becomes devoted to Āṭmā. Kuṇdalinī assumes the eight forms of prakṛṭi (matter) and attains Śiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Śiva. Thus rajas-śukla (seminal fluid) which rises up goes to Śiva along with maruṭ (vāyu); prāṇa and apāna which are always produced become equal. Prāṇas flow in all things, great and small, describable or indescribable, as fire in gold. Then this body which is āḍhibhauṭika (composed of elements) becomes āḍhiḍaivaṭa (relating to a tutelar deity) and is thus purified. Then it attains the stage of aṭivāhika. the body being freed from the inert state
becomes stainless and of the nature of Chiṭ. In it, the aṭivāhika becomes the chief of all, being of the nature of That. Like the conception of the snake in a rope, so the idea of the release from wife and samsāra is the delusion of time. Whatever appears is unreal. Whatever is absorbed is unreal. Like the illusory conception of silver in the mother-of-pearl, so is the idea of man and woman. The microcosm and the macrocosm are one and the same; so also the liṅga and sūṭrāṭma, svabhāva (substance) and form and the self-resplendent light and Chiḍāṭmā.
The Śakṭi named kunḍalinī, which is like a thread in the lotus and is resplendent, is biting with the upper end of its hood (namely, mouth) at the root of the lotus the mūlakanḍa. Taking hold of its tail with its mouth, it is in contact with the hole of brahmaranḍhra (of sushumnā). If a person seated in the pad ma posture and having accustomed himself to the contraction of his anus makes his vāyu go upward with the mind intent on kumbhaka, then agni comes to svāḍhishthāna flaming, owing to the blowing of vāyu. From the blowing of vāyu and agni, the chief (kunḍalinī) pierces open the brahmagranṭhi and then vishṇugranṭhi. Then it pierces ruḍragranṭhi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then Śakṭi is happy with Śiva in sahasrāra kamala (1,000 lotuses’ seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest avasṭhā (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude. Thus ends the first chapter.
I shall hereafter describe the science called khecharī which is such that one who knows it is freed from old age and death in this world. One who is subject to the pains of death, disease and old age should, O sage, on knowing this science make his mind firm and practise khecharī. One should regard that person as his guru on earth who knows khecharī, the destroyer of old age and death, both from knowing the meaning of books and practice, and should perform it with all his heart. The science of khecharī is not easily attainable, as also its practice.
Its practice and melana are not accomplished simultaneously. Those that are bent upon practice alone do not get melana. Only some get the practice, O Brahman, after several births, but melana is not obtained even after a hundred births. Having undergone the practice after several births, some (solitary) yogin gets the melana in some future birth as the result of his practice. When a yogin gets this melana from the mouth of his guru, then he obtains the siḍḍhis mentioned in the several books. When a man gets this melana through books and the significance, then he attains the state of Śiva freed from all rebirth. Even gurus may not be able to know this without books. Therefore this science is very difficult to master. An ascetic should wander over the earth so long as he fails to get this science, and when this science is obtained, then he has got the siḍḍhi in his hand (viz., mastered the psychical powers). Therefore one should regard as Achyuṭa (Vishṇu) the person who imparts the melana, as also him who gives out the science. He should regard as Śiva him who teaches the practice. Having got this science from me, you should not reveal it to others. Therefore one who knows this should protect it with all his efforts (viz., should never give it out except to persons who deserve it). O Brahman, one should go to the place where lives the guru, who is able to teach the divine yoga and there learn from him the science khecharī, and being then taught well by him, should at first practise it carefully. By means of this science, a person will attain the siḍḍhi of khecharī. Joining with khecharī śakṭi (viz., kunḍalinī śakṭi) by means of the (science) of khecharī which contains the bīja (seed of letter) of khecharī, one becomes the lord of khecharas (Ḍevas) and lives always amongst them. Khecharī bīja (seed-letter) is spoken of as agni encircled with water and as the abode of khecharas (Ḍevas). Through this yoga, siḍḍhi is mastered. The ninth (bīja) letter of somāmśa (soma or moon part) should also be pronounced in the reverse order. Then a letter composed of three amśas of the form of moon has been described; and after that, the eighth letter should be pronounced in
the reverse order; then consider it as the supreme and its beginning as the fifth, and this is said to the kūta (horns) of the several bhinnas (or parts) of the moon. 1 This which tends to the accomplishment of all yogas, should be learnt through the initiation of a guru. He who recites this twelve times every day, will not get even in sleep that māyā (illusion) which is born in his body and which is the source of all vicious deeds. He who recites this five lakhs of times with very great care—to him the science of khecharī will reveal itself. All obstacles vanish and the ḍevas are pleased. The destruction of valīpaliṭa (viz., wrinkle and greyness of hair) will take place without doubt. Having acquired this great science, one should practise it afterwards. If not, O Brahman, he will suffer without getting any siḍḍhi in the path of khecharī. If one does not get this nectarlike science in this practice, he should get it in the beginning of melana and recite it always; (else) one who is without it never gets siḍḍhi. As soon as he gets this science, he should practise it; and then the sage will soon get the siḍḍhi. Having drawn out the tongue from the root of the palate, a knower of Āṭmā should clear the impurity (of the tongue) for seven days according to the advice of his guru. He should take a sharp knife which is oiled and cleaned and which resembles the leaf of the plant snuhī ("Euphorbia antiquorum") and should cut for the space of a hair (the frænum Lingui). Having powdered sainḍhava (rock-salt) and paṭhya (sea-salt), he should apply it to the place. On the seventh day, he should again cut for the space of a hair. Thus for the space of six months, he should continue it always gradually with great care. In six months, Śiro-banḍha (banḍha at the head), 1 which is at the root of the tongue is destroyed. Then the yogin who knows timely action should encircle with Śiro-vasṭra (lit., the cloth of the head) the Vāk-Īśvarī (the deity presiding over speech) and should draw (it) up. Again by daily drawing it up for six months, it comes, O sage, as far as the middle of the eyebrows and obliquely up to the opening of the ears; having gradually practised, it goes to the root of the chin. Then in
three years, it goes up easily to the end of the hair (of the head) It goes up obliquely to Śākha and downwards to the well of the throat. In another three years, it occupies brahmaranḍhra and stops there without doubt. Crosswise it goes up to the top of the head and downwards to the well of the throat. Gradually it opens the great adamantine door in the head. The rare science (of khecharī) bīja has been explained before. One should perform the six aṅgas (parts) of this manṭra by pronouncing it in six different intonations. One should do this in order to attain all the siḍḍhis; and this karanyāsam 2 should be done gradually and not all at a time, since the body of one who does it all at once will soon decay. Therefore it should be practised, O best of sages, little by little. When the tongue goes to the brahmaranḍhra through the outer path, then one should place the tongue after moving the bolt of Brahma which cannot be mastered by the ḍevas. On doing this for three years with the point of the finger, he should make the tongue enter within: then it enters brahmaḍvāra (or hole). On entering the brahmaḍvāra, one should practise maṭhana (churning) well. Some intelligent men attain siḍḍhi even without maṭhana. One who is versed in khecharī manṭra accomplishes it without maṭhana. By doing the japa and maṭhana, one reaps the fruits soon. By connecting a wire made of gold, silver or iron with the nostrils by means of a thread soaked in milk, one should restrain his breath in his heart and seated in a convenient posture with his eyes concentrated between his eyebrows, he should perform maṭhana slowly. In six months, the state of maṭhana becomes natural like sleep in children. And it is not advisable to do maṭhana always. It should be done (once) only in every month. A yogin should not revolve his tongue in the path. After doing this for twelve years, siḍḍhi is surely obtained. Then he sees the whole universe in his body as not being different from Āṭmā. This path of the ūrḍhvakuṇdalinī (higher kunḍalinī), O chief of kings, conquers the macrocosm. Thus ends the second chapter.
Melanamanṭra.—(Hrīm), (bham), (sam), (sham), (pham), (sam), and (ksham).
The lotus-born (Brahma) said:
O Śaṅkara, (among) new moon (the first day of the lunar fortnight) and full moon, which is spoken of as its (manṭra's) sign? In the first day of lunar fortnight and during new moon and full moon (days), it should be made firm and there is no other way (or time). A man longs for an object through passion and is infatuated with passion for objects. One should always leave these two and seek the Nirañjana (stainless). He should abandon everything else which he thinks is favourable to himself. Keeping the manas in the midst of śakṭi, and śakṭi in the midst of manas, one should look into manas by means manas. Then he leaves even the highest stage. Manas alone is the binḍu, the cause of creation and preservation. It is only through manas that binḍu is produced, like the curd from milk. The organs of manas is not that which is situated in the middle of banḍhana. Banḍhana is there where Śakṭi is between the sun and moon. Having known sushumnā and its bheḍa (piercing) and making the vāyu go in the middle, one should stand in the seat of binḍu, and close the nostrils. Having known vāyu, the above-mentioned binḍu and the saṭṭva-prakṛṭi as well as the six chakras, one should enter the sukha-maṇdala (viz., the sahasrāra or pineal gland, the sphere of happiness). There are six chakras. Mūlāḍhāra is in the anus; svāḍhishthāna is near the genital organ; maṇipūraka is in the navel; anāhaṭa is in the heart; viśuḍḍhi is at the root of the neck and ājñā is in the head (between the two eyebrows). Having known these six maṇdalas (spheres), one should enter the sukhamaṇdala (pineal gland), drawing up the vāyu and should send it (vāyu) upwards. He who practises thus (the control of) vāyu becomes one with brahmāṇda (the macrocosm). He should practise (or master) vāyu, binḍu, chiṭṭa, and chakra.
Yogins attain the nectar of equality through samāḍhi alone. Just as the fire latent in (sacrificial) wood does not
appear without churning, so the lamp of wisdom does not arise without the abhyāsa yoga (or practice of yoga). The fire placed in a vessel does not give light outside. When the vessel is broken, its light appears without. One's body is spoken of as the vessel, and the seat of "That" is the fire (or light) within; and when it (the body) is broken through the words of a guru, the light of brahmajñāna becomes resplendent. With the guru as the helmsman, one crosses the subtle body and the ocean of samsāra through the affinities of practice. That vāk (power of speech) which sprouts in parā, gives forth two leaves in paśyanṭī, buds forth in maḍhyamā and blossoms in vaikharī—that vāk which has before been described, reaches the stage of the absorption of sound, reversing the above order (viz., beginning with vaikharī, etc). Whoever thinks that He who is the great lord of that vāk, who is the undifferentiated and who is the illuminator of that vāk is Self; whoever thinks over thus, is never affected by words, high or low (or good or bad). The three (aspects of consciousness), viśva, ṭaijasa, and prājña (in man), the three Virat, Hiraṇyagarbha, and Īśvara in the universe, the egg of the universe, the egg of man and the seven worlds—all these in turn are absorbed in Praṭyagāṭma through the absorption of their respective upāḍhis (vehicles). The egg being heated by the fire of jñāna is absorbed with its kāraṇa (cause) into Paramāṭmā (Universal Self). Then it becomes one with Parabrahman. It is then neither steadiness nor depth, neither light nor darkness, neither describable nor distinguishable. Saṭ (Be-ness) alone remains. One should think of Āṭmā as being within the body like a light in a vessel. Āṭmā is of the dimensions of a thumb, is a light without smoke and without form, is shining within (the body) and is undifferentiated and immutable.
The Vijñāna Āṭmā that dwells in this body is deluded by māyā during the states of waking, dreaming, and dreamless sleep; but after many births, owing to the effect of good karma, it wishes to attain its own state. Who am I? How has this stain of mundane existence accrued to me? What becomes in the dreamless sleep of me who am engaged in business in the waking and dreaming states? Just as a bale of cotton is burnt by fire, so the Chiḍābhāsa is the result of non-wisdom, is burnt by the (wise) thoughts like the above and by its own supreme illumination. The outer burning (of body as done in the world) is no burning at all. When the wordly wisdom is destroyed, Praṭyagāṭma that is in the ḍahara (ākāś or ether of the heart) obtains vijñāna, diffusing itself everywhere and burns in an instant jñānamaya and manomaya (sheaths). After this, He himself shines always within, like a light within a vessel.
That muni who contemplates thus till sleep and till death is to be known as a jīvanmukṭa. Having done what ought to be done, he is a fortunate person. And having given up (even) the state of a jīvanmukṭa, he attains viḍehamu.kti (emancipation in a disembodied state), after his body wears off. He attains the state, as if of moving in the air. Then That alone remains which is soundless, touchless, formless, and deathless, which is the rasa (essence), eternal, and odourless, which has neither beginning nor end, which is greater than the great, and which is permanent, stainless, and decayless.