Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Nātha Paṇth-Twelve Panthas

Twelve Panthas


Nātha Paṇth

māī masāni siddhi-sitalā, bhūt-bhairu, hanumant |
sāhib so nyārā rahai, jo inko pūjant ||
koṭi nām saṁsar me, tāte mukti na hoy |
ādi nām jo gupt jape, birlā jāne koy ||

The Nātha Saṁpradāya (sect) also known as the Nātha Paṇth (the path of Nathas). The word paṇth comes from the Sanskrit paṇthā, paṇthāṇ and means way, path. Yaksa-prasna, the sub-chapter of Mahabharat, defines the meaning of paṇthā as 'the path made by the great people', 'mahajana yena gatah sah panthah', and in this context the Nātha Paṇth means 'the Path made by the Guru Goraksh Nath'.

The Twelve Branches

At the moment of its origination, the sect was divided by its founder into the twelve branches or sub-sects, each of which in its turn also was called paṇth. Because of this division, the sect of Nathas also called "Bārah paṇth "or 'Bheṣ bārah paṇth (bārah means 'twelve') or twelve sub-sects taken together.
Along with this number, there exist one more widely accepted figure numbering the branches of the Natha sect as twelve and half (Sava Bārah Paṇth). Reason of the existence these two different sums is that in the second case to the twelve actual panthas of Nathas added so called "half-paṇth," formed by the Kanifa Yogis. Kanifa Yogis are snake charmers and family people (gṛihasta), and although being counted as one of the panthas, they hardly can be recognized as the genuine yogis or as the part of the Nāth Saṁpradāya. Their sub-sect doesn't has its central organization, and formed by the self-dependent snake charmers, whose life style more resembles one of the Indian castes then the organized religious order. Kanifa Yogis do not participate in the social life of the Nath sect, and don't have a rite to vote in the matters connected with the order, but even in the light of all of these, they are still can be classified as the followers of the Guru Goraksh Nath, because in accordance with a legend, their paṇth was created by his command.
These dual-number division is not eventual, but was purposefully arranged so by the will of the Guru Goraksh Nath, with the symbolical meaning behind it, where the twelve panthas represent the twelve constellations of zodiac, and other number represent the uncompleted 13 (7+6), the number of the netherworld (7 Patalas), which is the abode of Nagas (malicious serpent like beings), which in accordance with some legends, Goraksh Nath has visited.

Historical

As all other matters connected with the historicity of the Natha sect, the original of each of the twelve sub-sects and their detailed history are also quite obscure. Although the literature describing the doctrines and practices of the Natha Yogis are quite extant, the historic part of the tradition was not so well preserved. At the present moment, there is no written works available, which exactly define the time of the establishment or reforming of the Natha Sampradaya by the Guru Gorakh nath. All we have is the spoken tradition and some legends, often of the later origin, and the scarcity of the historical evidence from various resources.
The reasons of this lack of the reliable written information are few, and one of them is that the Natha Yogis traditionally were not giving much importance to the written works, always considering the direct transmitting of knowledge from guru to disciple as more important. But of course, even in this situation, there always were some big establishments of the sect, (many time supported by the local king), in which the written sources of the tradition were preserved. The two of the best modern examples of this kind are the Royal Library of the King of Nepal, and the Library of the Raja Mansing in Jodhpur. (The both of them are of the relatively late origin, although they contain in themselves many older books. In these libraries, there are still preserved many untranslated and unpublished manuscripts related to Natha tradition, and probably their translation and further research work may bring more light on its history).
Because the dominance of all previous authorities and tantras, was discontinued by the order of Guru Goraksh Nath, the Natha Yogis never accepted the system similar with Tibetan, when many various books were well preserved and classified, and were kept safely at the distant seclude monasteries, which were difficult to access. If we closely look at the presently available resouses related to the Natha tradition, we will notice that most of them were written relatively recently, and in case if we find them contradicting to each other, there is not exist any official system of recognition which of them were canonical and which are not.
After Mongols came as the rulers, the situation worsened, and many Hindu temples and ashramas of the sect were systematically destroyed, the libraries were burned, and the transmitters of traditions were mercilessly killed or forcibly converted into Islam. The same fate has happened with the Vajrayana Buddhist tradition of India, out of which mostly those books survived, which were taken abroad, and preserved there. Presently there exist many books of the older or later Buddhist origin, which are not available in their original language, but survived only as the translations into the languages of the countries where they were preserved (for example Chinese or Tibetan). Along with all above mentioned, the extreme climate of the country and the presence of termites, notorious for their taste for books, nearly everywhere over the area of India, were two more reasons causing the disappearance of many manuscripts of the tradition.
Also it happened in course of time, that not only the written tradition of the sect, but also the structural organization of the order went trough few major and minor transformations; some of the Twelve Panthas came into power, some became deprived from it, or even came to the state to be nearly wanished. Many new places and new temples were constructed, but some came into decay or were taken from the possession of the Nath Sampradaya by other sects, by the family people and even by the Government of India; few places belonging to some of panthas were overtaken by the other panths of the same sect. Some new names came into light, and some older became lost in time. With passing of time, from the original twelve panths sprang up different new sub-sects, some of which even acclaimed the status of the separate panthas, by taking place of their predecessors. Many times it happened that some of those changes were conducted by the personal appearances of the Guru Goraksh Nath or by others great Natha Siddhas.
Peculiarities

Each of the twelve sub-sects of Nathas has its own Head Quarter or main Math called Sir-māthā (literally 'the top of head') or Śīrṣ-sthān (the main place), situated at the different places in India, they own legendary founder (or patron deity) and unique peculiarities and traditions, but they place the Guru Goraksh Nath as being above of all these (secondary) differences. Mahant (head) of the main establishment of one of the twelve paṇthas, recognized as the chief of the paṇth he belongs, and exercise considerable influence on the members of his sub-sect. At past, the differences between the yogis of different paṇthas, were more expressed, with some unique particularities in the way they were wearing their garments and the special distinguishing marks assigned to them, but at present there are not obvious differences in their outer appearance and the ways of life. All of them are followers of Guru Goraksh nāth and today it is difficult to distinguish to which of panthas yogis belong merely by looking on them. In daily life, this division on twelve branches is very subtle, and the Nātha yogis of the different panthas freely mixing between themselves and usually not make mach differences amongst themselves.
However, there exist few spheres where this division is still important, and one of them is the questions connected with the legacy of property. It is the old tradition that the temples and ashrams of the sect counted as belonging to one of the twelve paṇthas. Therefore successor of gaddī (seat) of a math ideally should be of the same pant as his predecessor, in such way securing the place for his sub-sect. On practice, this rule not always strictly followed, and if the suitable candidate from the same paṇth was not found, then 'gaddī' can be offered to the member of another pant. As result of this, the new lineage of the succession is created, and the math becomes absorbed in that panth. However, if the property to be inherited is considerably big, then its successor, if he belongs to some another paṇth, should change the sub-sect he belongs (which is technically possible in some cases), and became the member of the paṇth to which it belongs, to preserve it within.
Another important issue, when the membership in one of twelve paṇthas always counted, occurs on some special occasions, when the different duties assigned to the nātha yogis in accordance with the paṇthas to which they are belong. This is done in accordance with the old tradition, established by the Guru Gorakh Nath, when the candidate on some particular post should be of exact paṇth. For example the duties of performing the most important rituals of the sect usually assigned to the members of the Satyanāth paṇth, or in case if member of this paṇth not available to the representative of the Dharmnāth paṇth. In the same way, many other responsibilities assigned to the members of different paṇthas in accordance with the existing customs.
Out of the latest examples of the development of the traditions of the Natha sect has taken place nearly threee hundred years ago at the time of the reforming of the Aipant by Siddh Baba Masta Nath. The two of his disciples Raṇpat-Mandhātā Nage Piro (naked pirs Raṇpat and Mandhātā), by the examples of their lives have established the tradition of the extreme penance (tapasa) for their descendants, including always remain half-naked, and always stay under open sky. Of course, this kind of practices is not unique only for their sub-division, but it is widely recognized amongst the Natha Yogis as their peculiarity, and as the peculiarity of the area they live (Haryana State).

The Panthas of Goraksh nath and of Shiva

Presently the twelve sub sects of the Sampradāya divided into two groups, each of which including in itself six paṇthas, one of them considered as originated from Adinath Śiva and other is from the Guru Gorakh Nāth. Such division has existed not always, and previously it is said, there were as much as eighteen paṇthas of Śiva and twelve of Guru Gorakh Nāth. The term 'the sects of Shiva' here, probably collectively defines the organized Shaiva traditions existed prior the foundation of the Natha order by the Guru Goraksh Nath. In accordance with the spoken tradition, the personages depicted in it as the followers of Śiva, were clinging to the Kapalika forms of worship, amongst which were the custom to carry female consort with them (the hypocritical parody of imitating Shiva), indulgence in all kinds of explicit behavior and drinking, and many other forms of hypocrisy.

'It is impossible for a blind man, to find the black cat in the dark room, especially if it is not there.'
These followers of the misleading ideas were condemned by Guru Goraksh Nath as 'bhogis', that is 'consumers' or those who want to utilize the higher spiritual values for their selfish fleshy needs. The followers of Gorakh Nāth were maintaining the order of their Guru and were called 'yogi' because they were the actual yogis in true sense, the persons who sincerely consecrated their lives for the higher spiritual ideals, and not merely wanted to fill their stomach and gratify their flesh at the expenses of others. The predominance of the hypocrites within the spiritual tradition, can be compared with a place full of thorny bushes; no good plant would be able to rise up there, for good plant requires its space and care.

Dispute

Guru Goraksh Nath has to secure the future for the true forms of the Shiva worship, and naturally, soon the question about how the yogis should behavior was raised up by both sides (by analogy with other life situations, we can imagine that it is villain side which did it first). When the authority of the Guru Goraksh Nath was challenged by Kapalikas (or probably the Kapalikas were rebuked by him), it resulted in the fierce discussion, which accepted the form of the violent conflict, in which many yogis from both sides were killed. In accordance with the legends, this battle has happened at the place called Anupam shila, at the city Trayambukeshvar situated near bigger city Nasik in the Maharashtra State. The Gorakh Nāth's side has won the battle, and since that moment his authority and order remained unchallenged, and accepted as the indisputable rule for all Natha Yogis. Even nowadays, when the Yogis of the Nātha Saṁpradāya collecting at Anupam shila at the time of Nasik Kumbh mela once in twelve years , the yogis of Goraksh Nāth paṇthas stay away from the yogis of Shiva paṇthas for a period of time, in remembrance of those ancient events.
As conclusion of this war, the twelve of eighteen Siva's paṇthas and six of twelve Gorakh nāth's paṇthas were totally destroyed, so that no one of their members have survived, and only the yogis of six pants on each side continue to exist. Later, the names of those extinguished paṇthas became lost in time, and today nobody remember them. Presently the only six paṇthas from each side are actually in existence, but in accordance with the older tradition, eighteen paṇthas from Śiva's side and twelve from Gorakh Nāth's are still counted. (See also Jamat)
As it was mentioned above, the only twelve of these 30 paṇthas (12+18) are having their own names. Today it is quite difficult to make right judgment about original and source of some of those names, because of scarcity of historical evidence. In accordance with spoken tradition, the twelve paṇthas were started at time of creating of Nāth Saṁpradāya by Guru Gorakh Nāth, but some names of the founder appearing to be of earlier or later original. This might be because they were changed in course of time, and original old names became lost. In accordance with some other sources, all twelve panthas were not created at the same time, but were evolving one by one from first one founded by Goraksh nath, as branches grows from trunk of the tree. This hardly be accepted as true because from above mentioned it is clear that all of the twelve panthas were started at the same time.
According to David Gordon White, these panths were not really a subdivision of a monolithic order, but rather an amalgamation of separate groups descended from either Matsyendranath, Gorakshanath or one of their students.

The Six of Śiva panthas

Name

Founder

Patron

State

Place(H.Q.)

1.Satyanāthī, or Paṅkh

Satyanath- Brahma

Brahma

Urisa

Bhuvaneshvar,

or U.P.

Agra?

or Rajasthan

Pushkar

2.Dharmnāthī

Raja Udhisthar

Dharamraja

Nepal

Dhullu Delak

Ajakal

Uttar Pradesh

Gorakh Nath Mandir, Gorakhpur

3.Rāmnāthī, Rām ke, Gopal

Shri Ramachandra

Shri Rama

Nepal, also Uttar Pradesh

Chok Thappe Nohar,

Gorakhpur (U.P)

4.Pagal Paṇth

Choranginath

Bhagat Puranmal

Haryana

Asthal Bohar

5.Pao-nathi (Pavak)

Jalandharnath

Rajasthan

Jalour

6.Mān-Nāthī or Manonāthi

Raja Rasalū

Arjannāga?

Rajasthan

Jodhpur, Ṭāī Maha Mandir


The Six of Gorakh Nath Panthas

Name

Founder

Patron

State

Place

1.Āī Paṇth (Āī)

Vimla Devi, Karkāī and Bhūṣṭāī

Ai Devi, Bhawani

Haryana

Asthal Bohar


Koth

Bengal Vimla gufa

2.Bhartṛhari Bāirāg

Siddh Vicharnath

Raja Bhartrihari

Rajasthan

Rātā Ḍūndha

3.Nāteśvarī Paṇth and its sub sect- Dariyanathi

Lakshmannath

(Bālnāth)

Shesh Nag

Pakistan

Jhelum Goraksh Tilla

shifted to

Panjab

Ambala Goraksh Tilla

4.Kapilānī

Kapilnath (Ajaipal)

Kapil muni

Kapil Deo

Bengal

Callcuta Goraksh Bansī

5.Rāval or Nāg Nāth

Rāval Nāth

Siddha Bädarbäré

Afganistan

Gailpur Bādarbārī

Pakistan

Rawalpindi

6.Ganga Nāthī

Ganga Nāth, Bhishma Pitāmaha?

Rishi Bhagirat

Panjab

Gurdaspur Jakhval or

Gaìga Sagar


In accordanse with the list given in the book of Hajārīprasād Dvivedi, two more panths are exist: Dhaja panth and Kaṇṭhar, which are placed instead of Rawal and Pao panthas. Author says that this list is based on the definitions by the famous mahant of Gorakhpur Math yogi Gambhir nath ji.

1.Dhaja panthi

Hanuman ji

-

-

-

Kaṇṭhar Nāth

Ganesh

Gujrat

Kacch, Mānpharā


Previously shown division of 12 panthas, presenting them in accordance with the most recent tradition current now days in the Nāth Sampradāya, but in accordance with G.W.Briggs and few older sources, previously names of them were some different from what they are now. Briggs mentioned in his book existence of the older names, as Coli, Kaṇṭhar, Heth, and there are exist few old verses where those names also appear. Today many of those names are not recognized by modern Natha Yogis, although not all of them. In 1924 A.D., G.W.Briggs visited Goraksh Tilla situated at Jhelum, Pakistan, which was the very important if not to say the most important centre of the Natha Sampradāya at that time. There he have discussion with the contemporary head of the Panth Pīr Kalla Nāth, who has given him a list of the twelve panthas based on the ancient records, which were preserved in the Math. Those records are different from the list presented above. In accordance with them the six panthas of Śiva group are:
1. Kaṇṭharnāth of Bhuj, in Kacch;
2. Pāgalnāth of Peshawar and Rohtak;
3. Rāval of Afghanistan;
4. Paṅkh;
5. Ban of Mārwār;
6. Gopāl or Rām ke;

The six of Gorakṣ Nāth group are:
1. Hethnāth;
2. Colināth of the Āi-pant of Devī Bimla (Bombay);
3. Cāndnāth, Kaplāni;
4. Bāirāg, Ratadhunda Marwar, Ratannāth;
5. Pāonāth, of Jaipur
6. Dhajjanāth (Mahābīr) whose members are all foreigners;

As it can be seen from the list, the Rawal panth was placed in the Shiva’s group and the Pao pant in the Gorakṣ Nāth group, while most sources showing them as belonging each to the opposite group. It seems that such arrangement was made by mistake because the founder of the Pao panth Jalandhar Nath was senior to Goraksh Nath, as he was direct disciple of Shiva and Guru-bhai of Matsyendra Nath. Duty this reason he can’t be placed in the group of panths founded by Goraksh Nath. Two more differences are here; Dhajjanath panth was placed instead of Gaṅgā Nath panth of Goraksh Nath group and Ban of Mārwār instead of Dharmnath of Shiva group.
As I mentioned before, there exist few old verses with names of twelve panthas different from what they are now days. These verses written in old Hindi were published by Raja Chandra nath in his book Yogiyo kā nityācār- Akhaṇḍ pūjā in 1967. Some of those names can be easily recognized by comparing with modern names, but some appear to be quite obscure:

Verses 1 a-b

1.a) satyanāth aru rām ke kanthaṛ pākal pāv |
dharmanāth chai pantha ihai śiva yogī jatirāv ||

Satyanāth, Rām ke, Kanthaṛ, Pākal, Pāv and Dharmanāth, these are six Panthas of Śiva Yogis.

1.b) gaṅgānathi vairāgya puna naṭeśvarī kapilān |
āī rāval ṣaṭ ihe gorakh jogī jān ||

Gaṅgānathi, Vairāgya, Naṭeśvarī, Kapilān, Āī and Rāval, know these are six (panthas) of Gorakṣa Yogis.

Verse 2

pāvapākal dhvaja rāval coli van kanthaḍ cand |
vairāgya hetapaṅkh gopāla ihe bārah panth jogyanda ||

2. Pāv, Pākal, Dhvaja, Rāval, Coli, Van, Kanthaḍ, Cand, Vairāgya, Het, Paṅkh and Gopāla are the twelve panthas of yogis.

Verse 3

pākal rāval dās kanthaḍ āī dhvaja van paṅkh |
coli het gopāl gam jogī bāraha pantha ||

3. The twelve pantas of yogis are: Pākal, Rāval, Dās, Kanthaḍ, Āī, Dhvaja, Van, Paṅkh, Coli, Het, Gopāl and Gam.

There exist one more different list of names of twelve panthas found in the composition Bārah Panth Mātrāśāstra written in the old Hindi by Siddh Ghoṛā Colīnāth. These names are:
Rāval, Pākal, Bani (from van- jungle), Agamāgam, Aipanth, Pāṅkhi, Dvaj, Gopāl, Het, Dās, Kanthaṛ, Colī.

Interest to notice that this list have no association with any of the names of Yogis, but rather based on some particular qualities and the way of behavior assigned to the sub-sects.

On the basis of all lists presented above and information in the book GN&KY, I has made this table in an attempt to trace the process of transformation of all these names from older order to its modern state.

The Six of Śiva panthas compared

N

Modern existing devision

First list verse1 a-b

Second list verse 2

Third list verse 3

Fourth list of Pīr Kalla Nāth

Fifth list of Ghoṛā Colīnāth

1

Satya Nāthi

Satya Nāth

Paṅkh

Paṅkh

Paṅkh

Pāṅkhi

2

Rām ke

Rām ke

Gopāl

Gopāl

Gopāl

Gopāl

3

Man Nāthi

Kanthaṛ

Kanthaṛ

Kanthaṛ

Kaṇṭhar Nāth

Kanthaṛ

4

Pāgal

Pākal

Pākal

Pākal

Pāgal Nāth

Pākal

5

Pāo Nāthi or Pavak

Pāv

Pāv

Gam

Rāwal? Here misplaced with Pao

Agamāgam

6

Dharm Nāthi

Dharma Nāth

Van?

Van?

Ban of Mārwār?

Bani



The Six of Gorakṣ Nāth panthas compared

N

Modern existing devision

First list verse 1 a-b

Second list verse 2

Third list verse 3

Fourth list of Pīr Kalla Nāth

Fifth list of Ghoṛā Colīnāth

1

Gaṅgā Nathi

Gaṅgā Nathi

Dhvaja ?

Dhvaja ?

Dhajja Nāth?

Dvaj?

2

Bhartṛhari Bāirāg

Vairāgya

Vairāgya

Dās?

Bāirāg

Dās?

3

Naṭeśvarī

Naṭeśvarī

Het

Het

Heth Nāth

Het

4

Kapilānī

Kapilān

Cand

Coli?

Cānd Nāth

Colī?

5

Āī panthi

Āī

Coli (choli)

Āī

Coli Nāth

Aipanth

6

Rāval

Rāval

Rāval

Rāval

Pāonāth? here misplaced with Rāval

Rāval

In one mantra there is one more list of the twelve panthas, with the names of their patrons or founders here called Pīr and with their head qurters called sthān (place):

Panth

Pīr

Place

1

Satya Nāth

Brahmā

Pātāl Bhuvaneśvar

2

Rām ke

Paraśurām

Nohar

3

Dharm Nāth

Dharmrāja

Dullu Deval

4

Pāv Paṇth

Jālandhar Nāth

Jālaur

5

Pāgal Paṇth

Siddh Pālak Nāth

Rohtāś (Rohtak)

6

Rāval

Viṣṇu

Gailpur

7

Kapalāṇī

Kapil Munī

Gorakh Bansī

8

Gaṅga Nāthī

Bhagīrath

Gāṅgā Sāgar Jakhvaḍ(ṛ)

9

Naṭeśvarī

Lakṣmaṇ

Gorakh Ṭillā

10

Āī

Bimalā Nāth

Bengal Bimalā

11

Bāirāg

Bhartṛharī Nāth

Rātā Ḍūṇḍā

12

Mān Nāthī

Candramā

Ṭāiyā


The Twelve Panthas in more details

1. Satyanāthi (Paṅkh) or Brahmā ki Yogī

Yogis of this panth always counted as being first from twelve panths and as most intelligent sub sect of the Nath Sampradaya. Traditionally members of this panth were recruited only from Brahmins by caste and were assigned duty of serving as official priests of the Natha sect. Till present day, all important rituals of Nathas performed by the members of this panth, and it is their tradition that they have better knowledge of different mantras and rituals of the sect than yogis of other panthas. The name Satya nath is another name of Brahma, in his role as one of the Nine Great Nathas. The old name of the panth was Paṅkh, and it is frequently used even today. The title Paṅkh also applied to those of Natha yogis (of the Satyanath panth) to whom were given responsibilities to carry correspondence and news between different mathas of the sect. In older times, when there were not existing modern means of communication, the ‘pankh’ was a very important person, who provided communication between the distant maths of the sect. Paṅkh also called yogi of Satya nath panth to whom assigned responsibility to keep standing (Kalesri) among the big gathering of Natha Yogis, and loudly deliver important messages to yogis of the sect in particular manner. He keep standing all the time with chari (wooden stick wrapped in silver) in his hands, and loudly pronouncing important messages addressed to al Natha yogis and mantras at time of daily worship (arti) and other ceremonies.
Also in accordance with some sources there exist opinion that founder of the pant Satyanath was a real person who lived at the same time with Guru Goraksh nath. Possibly that panth was named in the name of this famous yogi. The Head quarter of the panth situated at Bhuvaneshvar capital of Urisa state.

Rātā Ḍūndha mantrauṣadhaviśeṣān |
prāpyasatyanāthādisiddhākṛtārthāśicaraṁ jīvitaścavabhūvuḥ || 49||

2. Dharm Nāthi

The old head qurter of the panth was situated in Nepal at place Dhullu Delak Ajakal. At the present, the biggest establishment and Head quarter of this panth is the Gorakh Nath Temple situated at the city Gorakhpur, in the East of the Uttar Pradesh. The establishment was wealthy since long time ago, but under Mahant Digvijinath ji who was mahant of the temple since 15 august 1933 till 1971 it acquired even bigger importance. Since his time it is also residence of President of Akhil Bharatvarshiya Bhesh Baraha Panth- Legislative Governing body of the Nath Panth. This math is not only biggest panth of the Dharamnathi sub-sect, but also one of the biggest from all Nath Sampradaya, (it presently can be compared only with Asthal Bohar). Current President of A.B.B.B.Panth Mahant Yogi Avedya Nath ji, at the same time President of ABBBPM. Present Temple quite recently rebuilt, but it said that establishment very ancient and tracing its history from Treta Yuga.
Previously the Natha Panth lacked its legislative presentation, the issue which was creating immense difficulties in the official recognition of the sect. Existed from thousands of years, the Natha Sampradaya was counted as not existed, because it was not officially registered, and therefore not recognised by the goverment of India. At year 1927, Adhipati (head) of the Astal Bohar and the Pir of Goraksh Tilla, than at Pakistan, has undertake the first steps to solve this matter. An attempt was done to register Government recognized organization with its constitution. This work was continued under Shastri Mukundarnath (1929) at that time Mahant of Math at Nahan (H.P.). However this job was completed only under Mahant Digvijinath, at 1950, who was at that time Mahant of the Gorakhnath Temple of Gorakhpur. Pant named after famous yogi Dharam-nath famous for his miracle performing.
There exist two version stories about founder of this panth, in accordance with one of them its founder was personage of Mahabharata Raja Udhishthar, who was son of Dharamraja, the god of death and righousness (Karmanath, Daṇḍanāth, Nyāyanāth).
Goraksh Nath mandir traditionally was famous as center learning of Natha Yogis, especially from the time of Mahant Gambirnath ji to Digvijay nath ji and Avedya nath ji. Also such learned sadhus of nearer past as Santinath ji and Nivrittinaath ji. And Akshey Kumar Banerji and Shri Ram Lal Srivastav. Both mahants Digvijeynath ji and Avedya nath ji did lot of work for propagatin Nath teachig and Hatha yoga. At the time of Mahant Digvijainath ji being President of ABNYBP, work of publication and bringing to wide masses of people, books of Goraksh nath has started by establishing Yoga pracharini Mahasabha with its head q At Kashi at Goraksh tila, under Yogi Narharinathji. Later this work was continue at Goraksh Nath Mandir , Goraksh pur under Mahant Avedya nath ji. Many books of Guru Goraksh nath, previously unpublished came into light and were translated.

3. Rām Nāthi (Gopāl) or Rām panthi

This panth also called Rām-ke or Rama Chandra-ke. Ram ke can be translated as panth “of Rama”. Yogis of the panth tracing they origin and foundation to Raja Ramachandra. Traditionaly Sir-māthā of this panth was situated at Gorakhnath temple of Gorakshpur, but later this math was overtaken by the yogis of the Dharm Nath sub sect, which retain control of the Math till present day. The another name of the panth, of older original is Gopāl, the name associated with an avatar of Bhagavan Vishnu Krishna,who also known as Gopāl Nāth The word Go-pāl can be translated as cow-heard or as “one who takes care of cows”. Krishna was taking care of cows in his young age, and as result one of his many names is Gopāl Nāth. One of names of his older brother Balarama also has form ending with Natha tradition Raman Nāth. Both Rama Chandra and Krishna are avatars of the same Bhagavan Vishnu at the different periods of time. Rama Chandra also has few names ending with Natha, one of which is
There exist legend amongst the natha yogis, which contradicting most accepted chronologies of Gorakshnath’s life, in accordance with which Krishna came to Goraksh nath to became his disciple that after end of Mahabharata war. He was blamed by many for starting that dreadful war, therefore he escaped from public life, and came to Gorakshnath to take refuge together wth his wife Rukmini. Coming woman amongst natha yogis created roar amongst them because it contradicted thetraditions of the sect. They were against her presence and didn’t want that she would stay with them. In accordance with the legend, they even proposed to sale her in exchange for charas. To solve this dilemma Goraksh nath put his Kangan (bracelet which symbolizing protection of person to whom it given) on waist of Rukmini, in such way extending his personal protection to her and declaring her to be his sister. Mention of this even appear in one couplet of Bālāṣṭaka 1, part of ārati used for the daily worship by the Natha Yogis:

śrī mādho prāñcī me śrī nāth jī ne rukmiṇī jī ko kaṅgan bāndhyo |

4. Pāgal (Pakal Nāthi)

The panth trace its origin to Siddh Coranginath, who also known as Puran Mal. In accordance with most of Indian folklore ballads Puran Mal and his yonger brother Rasalu both became disciples of Goraksh nath at different periods of time. At the same time the Pagalpanth belongs to group of Shiva panthas, which is contradicts lineage descending from Guru Goraksh nath. In couplets attributed to authorship of Choranginath called Pāṇ Saṁkli, he self calling himself ‘disciple of Matsendranath’ and ‘Guru-Bhai’ of Goraksh nath. Tibetan tradition also conform this statement and it seems as more logical.
The word Pagal literally translated means ‘crazy’ or ‘insane’ person, or person who non adequately behavior, hence for Pagalpanthi can be translated as ‘panth of crazies’.
Traditionally the Sir-māthā of the panth was situated at city Rohtak in Haryana State, but about three hundred years ago it was overtaken by Siddh Baba mastenath and his disciples, the yogis of reformed Ai panth. Presently the Math is famous as Asthal Bohar and here situated Head Qurter of the New Ai panth. In accordance with legend Siddh Coranginath came here from Panjab in 8th century and performed here his penance. Later the Math arise on spot which became Head Quarter of Pagalpanth formed by his descendants. The Math is one of wealthiest and influential in the present and became an important center of Natha Sampradaya in Haryana. Traditionally the yogis of this panth were famous for their extreme practices of tapasa, one of which was standing on head with legs lifted up for long time.

7. Pao Natha (pavak pant)

The estabilishment of the Pao (pavak, pav) pant, usually attributed to Jalandhar Nath, also known as Jalandharipa, who started “Pa” line of yogis . Jalandhar nath was direct disciple of Śiva, some legends says that he was Siva himself. Being distinguished yogi of Shaiva tradition at the same time he widely recognized as being eminent yogi of Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana. It is possible that at time of creation of this panth, ending ‘pa’ was standing instead of ‘nath’ in names members of this sub-sect and later was replased by ‘nāth’. Amomgs older Natha Siddhas there exist many names ending on ‘pa’ or ‘pav’, such names as Hali pav, and more. Now this tradition has became extinguished in the Naths order, but in Tibetan lines which sprang up from the same movement of Siddha Yogis it is still used. So we have names as Gorakh-pa, Mina-pa, Kanipa, Chorangipa, Jalandharharipa, Haddipa and so on, which appearing in older books. All these names are well known as names of memmbers of Nath sect, but here ‘pa’ used instead nath. Brigs says that Tibetan ‘pa’ means equvivalent of hindi word ‘vālā’. In Tibetan lineage such names as Tilo-pa, Mar-pa, Naro-pa, Karma-pa, are well known. Possible that they might be dessendants of Pa-lineage found by Jalandhari-pa in his role as Vajrayana Mahasiddha. Also in accordance with some Tibetan lineages of transmission, the names of Tilopa and Nāropa who were founders one of Tibetan sect Karma Kagyu, come after name of Jalandharnath’s disciple Kaniphanāth (Kāṇha).
The word Pavak, another name of panth, can de translated as fire in its ‘cooking’, ‘making ready’ aspect, and in accordance with one legend of later origin, the God of Fire was having close relations with Jalendharnatn, who is said was born from sacrificial fire of king .
The Pa-panth appears to be also called Pa-nathi or Panpatai, a sub-order founded by Jalandhar as a disciple of Mahadeo. The origin of the Jalandhar-nath order has already been related. In Amritsar it is known as Bawa Jalandhar ke, and its members keep snakes. Sir-māthā of this sub-sect situated at Jalor in Rajasthan State.

7. Mannathi

Yogis of Mananathi panth trace their origin to Raja Rasalu, the yonger brother of Puran Mal. Both brothers became disciples of guru Goraksh nath and each became founder of one of Natha panthas. It is said that after intiation Raja Rasalu was given new name Mannath under which he became member of the Nath Sampradaya. In accordance with the legend he came in area Shekhavati of Rajastan, and made place of is penance at the vilage Ṭāī. Presently at this place situated main Math of the Mananathi panth called Ṭāī Mahamandir. There it is said Mannath has taken his samadhi, and his tomb still present in the Math. Later lineage of his descendance grown up and became reconised as Mananthi Panth of the Nath sect.
Raja Risalu, king of Tain, Rajasthan, was a disciple of Gorakshanath, 2500 years ago. He was given the name Mannath and his disciples were called Mannathis after him.

Interest to notice that although this panth organises from Raja Rasalu who was disiple of Goraksh nath, this panth listed amongst six panthas of Shiva, while logicaly it should be in Gorakshnath’s group. In different lists Mannathi often stand instead of Kantharnath pant.

7.Ai or Ai Paṇthi

Aitpanth have its unique place in the Nātha Sampradaya, since the yogis of this panth traditionally were distinguished for they custom to add ending ‘ai’ to the end of their names insead of traditional ‘Nath’ used by yogis of other eleven panthas. Ai stands there for Mai, what means “Mother Goddess”. It seems that Ai pant traces its tradition from very ancient practices of Shakta worship existed even before emerging of the Nath Sampradaya. Yogis of this panth used to add ‘ai’ to ends of their names to show their extencive devotion to Ai Devi or Adi Shakti Jagdamba “The primordial mother of the world”. They used to do it to symbolize that they were embodiment of that awakened Shakti, her female principle. They used to do it as way of worship of Ai Devi, while yogis of rest Nath Sampradaya were adding to their names Natha related to Adi nath Śiva. Although considered by many as Saivite, ellements of Shakti worship are very strong in Nath Sampradaya. However we mast remembered that they considering worship one of the Shiva taken separatly from Shakti, or worship Shakti with out Shiva as quite impossible taking Shivling as example of it.
In accordance with some legends, this panth was started by Śiva on the request of his consort Parvati, in accordance with others by Guru Goraksh nath from his female disciple Vimala devi. Names of her two sons Karkāī and Bhūṣṭāī are also connected with foundation of this Panth. Presently Aipanth is one of biggest pants of Nath sampradaya by number of yogis in it, and if taken together with Natheswary panth, two pants form aprximetly half of the sect or even more.

At the time of Siddh Baba Mastenath, about 300 years ago, the aipant was reformed by him and old practice to add ‘ai’ as part of the name became replaced with traditional ‘Nāth’ used by other Natha yogis. Baba Mastenath, was distinguished yogi of Aipanth, who was initiated into the order by his Guru Baba Narmāī (nāth) ji, and looked upon as being manifestation of Guru Gorakh nath himself. Not all yogis of the Aipanth has accepted his reform, and the old tradition to add ‘ai’ as part of the name also survived in the older part of the panth. As result of these changes, the Aipanth became divided into two parts, one of which were followers of ‘the old tradition’ and other was a new “reformed” panth.
Presently the “old” panth existing with its H.Q. at Koth, Haryana?, and Yogis of that panth still adding Ai instead of ‘nath’ to the end of their names. The ‘new’ Aipanth started by Siddh Baba Mastenath, with its H.Q. situated at Asthal Bohar Math, Rohtak, Haryana and Yogis of this panth are not adding Ai to their names. Instead of it, they are using ‘nath’. Now both of these branches of Aipanth are in existence, and yogis of old linege, to be distinguished, call themselves “Koth ki yogi”(Yogis of Koth), and that of new line, called “Baba Mastenath ke chille” (the disciples of Baba Mastanath). As it was mentioned above, theYogis of the ‘old’ panth still retained they tradition to add Ai to the end of they names, but they also adding ‘Nath’ after it. Also it is still much common practice amongst them to use their names without adding ‘nath’ to it. Although presently Aipanth strongly associated with Asthal Bohar as its HQ, which today one of the most influential centers of Nathas, the yogis of old tradition like to mention that real HQ of the panth situated at the Koth, which is correct in accordance with Parampara of the sect. It is also called ‘Purana makan’, or ‘old house’. These statement at the same time true and untrue, true because Guru of Baba Masthanath ji was Baba Narmāī (nāth) ji, whose roots were in Koth, and not true if we accept Baba Mastensath as same person with Goraksh Nath who is Guru of all Nathas, and as such he is superior.
Newly created Aipant became in its turn divided into two sub-divisions, one of which called Rijala ( scepter holders ) and other is Nage Piro (naked pirs), both trace their ordination from Baba Mastanath. This division happened because of different orders given by Baba Mastenath to his disciples. Those of them who were obliged to take care of establishments or Mathas of the panth, were called Rijala (Scipter-holders or Raja Yogis), they traditionally were allowed to wear clothes and sleep under the roof. They trace they parampara from Yogi Totanath ji, who was ordered by his guru Siddh Baba Mastenath to became the first Mahant of Asthal Bohar Math and take care of it.
Those yogis who became descendant of two other disciples of Baba Mastenath, Ranpat Mandata Nage Piro (Rampat and Mandata naked Pirs) started calling themselves Nage Piro. The both founders of the lineage, were disciples of Baba Mastanath and were born at the same village. They became famous for their severe penance called Kalesri, by keep continuously standing for twelve years day and night under open sky. Nage Piro means Nacked Pirs but today it is difficult to say either they were totally without closes or they were using only lion close as they cover. At least today it is not tradition of they followers to be totally naked, as Naga Sanyasis using to do, but Baba Mastanath was famous for his walking around sky-clad (i.e. totally naked).
Similarly their descendants were caring life of Tapas, staying at open places near dhuni (fire plase) and traditionally were not wearing sewed closes and sleep under roof. This custom was alive till very recent time, but now strict rules becoming more and more flexible.
There exist opinion expressed by some researchers that Aipanth was established by Baba Narmāī nāth jī, but this not correct. Narmāī nāth jī was Guru of Baba Mastenath, who lived in 18 century, while panth tracing its history at least to time of Guru Goraksh Nath.
Also it is said that pant divaided into Baṛa Dargāh (big estabilishment) and Choṭī Dargāh (smoll estabilishment). Memmbers of first are folloving “Right path” and not use liqours and meat. Memmbers of second folloving “Left path” and indulging in both.
There exist also one more division of ai-panth, so called ‘cotha pira’( the fourth or small part). It is formed from followers of Camara, who are belonged to considered lowest from four casts, members of which called Camara (they main business is taking skins of dead animals and make shoes and other things out of leather) .Near villages they live usually bad smell from carcasses of dead animals and draying skins, and they also blamed by Hindus of higher casts for eating cow meat. The word Camar sometimes used as abuse to low-disposal persons even nowadays. Although it is widely believed that Nath Yogis used to accept members of any of four casts in their order, in reality situation was quite different from it, and even today many yogis reluctant to it.
It is said that some follower of baba Mastenath of low caste, pleased the Guru by his devotion, and as result was accepted by him as disciple. As he was of low caste he was given name Camar-nath (not miss with Camari from stories of eighty four siddhas) and he was ordered to remain separate from rest of Nath yogis. But in Dera Ghazi Khan we find Bari-dargah given as equivalent to Ai-panthi, and the Chhoti-dargah described as the foundation of a Chamar disciple of Pir Mast Nath, who bestowed the title in him in reward for his faithful service.
Aipanth was placed in special position by great Yogis at least twice: once by Goraksh Nath in his book SSP, and another time by founder of Sikh Religion Guru Nanak Dev. SSp list Ai sanatan not as ordinary panth of the sect, but as one of five sanatanas (the five stages of the spiritual development) compulsory for each yogi of the Natha sect.
Guru Nanak Dev very highly appreciated Aipanth in one of his Songs. He called it distinguished from all others, and the only panth.

Āī-panthi sagal jamātī mani jītai jagu jītu .

He says that Āī-panthi is the complete Jamat, i.e. that it is most important panth in which included all others twelve panthas.

The Legend of Vimla Devi

In one village, there was living woman Vimala by name, who remained childless long time after she was married. One day, Goraksh Nath has reached the village where she and her husband were living. Gorksh nath choosed place to stay outside of the vilage, and soon fame about his miraculous deeds spreaded all around. The husband of Vimla, being impressed by the stories about the supernatural abilities of the yogi, and seeing it as last chance to get a child, approached the yogi and asked him to give him a blessing to get children. After listening his request, Gorakh nath has taken two hand full of rice grains from pouch recently brought to him by some other follover, and poured it into his bag. ‘Take it to your house and make seeds separated from their chaff, and when this would be done I will see if it possible to do something’, he told.
Husband brought those seeds to their house, where he and Vimla egerly started threshing and winnowing grain in hope accomplish this task as soon as possible. Although quintity of grains was not too much big, to their wonder, those two hand full of rice given by Goraksh nath remain ever same and seems not going to be fineshed soon. Vimla was continuing to threshing it, till the evening came, then next day, then day by day egearly hoping to finish task given by Goraksh Nath, but all was in vain. After some time two huge heaps were created in front of their house, one was of cleaned grains and other of their husks. Slowly both heaps reached size two time bigger then was their house, but even after it those two hand full of rice appeared as it was before and not going to be ended.
After few years passed, goraksh nath once more came to their village and stoped there for some time. When Vimla has came to know about it, she came to the place where he was staing and told him, about happened. She told that they became overhalmet with both grains and hask, but their job was still not accomplished and those two hands full he given them remined as they were before. Goraksh nath told them to take him to their place and show him what they achived so far. When they reached the place where both rice and husk were stored, Goraksh nath pashed his hand into heap of rice and by his yogic power has taken from it a smoll boy. Then he pushed his other hand into heap of fodder and taken from it another boy. Cleaned seed of rice called kanak in local Hindi dialects, and hask called bhusa, therefore boy taken from heap of grain was given name Kanakāī and other taken out of heap of husk was given name Bhūskāī .
On seeing this wonder greatly impressed Vimla, got sudden enlightement and in that very moment became disillusioned in material world. She offered both her children to Guru Goraksh nath, and asked him accept them and her as his disciples. In one day all tree were initiated by him in Nath order. Goraksh nath told her that because she as a woman is embodiment of primordial power or Adi Shakti, new pant would be created in her name, with name āi or māi to her. Since that moment , in accordance with legend, āipanth was created, which is only one panth of twelve having women as its founder. Later she became famous as Vimala Devi or Bimla. Since that moment yogis of aipanth were adding word ai to the end of their names. Some sourses saying that her name was also Cholipanath. She performed great penances and reached nirvana, or cessation of all kinds of suffering.

8. Bhartṛhari Bāirāg, or Vairāgya Paṇth

(Bāirag stands for distort form of Vairāgya, what means renunciation or detachment, so it means “renunciation of Bhartṛhari). It is said, traces its original from Raja of Ujjain Bhartrihari by name, who was historical personality and was disciple of Guru Goraksh nath. He was a king who abandoned his throne to became a wondering yogi. He was highly educated person of his time, and known also as author at least of tree books: first called Vairāgya śataka, or hundred verses on renunciation; second is Śṛngāra śataka or hundred verses on beauty of love; and third is Nīti śataka or hundred verses on art of politics. All three of them counted as classics of Indian literature. There exist three different stories about how and why he renounced his throne and became wondering yogi under influence of Guru Goraksh Nath (in one legend without it). He is known also as one of Nath siddhas, under name Siddh Vicar nath. Since time of Buddha, his story about renunciation second by importance in Indian history.

9.Nateshvari or Lakshman ki Yogi

naṭeśvara m. `" lord of dancers "'N. of S3iva W.This panth called in honour of brother of Raja Ramachandra Laksman by name. Presently it has its Head Quarter, called Gorakh Tilla, situated at Ambala, in Punjab. Previously it was located in Jhelum, the city situated in the part of India which gone to Pakistan.(also see Briggs) It was having great influence at that time, but became deprived from its property and power at the time of partition. NathYogis of this panth have to flow in India nearly with ‘empty hand’, leaving at Pakistan all they huge possessions. Mahant of the Main Gaddi of this panth has title ‘Pir’, and kept in highly respect by all Nath Yogis. He is respected as being ‘Pir’ of all Nath Yogis of the twelve panths. Presently Nateshwary one of biggest pantas from twelve, having considerable number of yogis
The panth at present divided into two parts, one of which is ‘old’ called Nateshvari, and other which is relatevely new, callede ‘Daryanath’i. Sometimes they are mistakenly counted as being separate panths. Legend says, that in older times Nateshvari panth was undivided. Once it happened that an influential yogi of the panth, after arising dispute about who would be next head of the panth, at the Gorakh Tilla at Jhelum, Pakistan, gone out of it and after coming down and crossing the river, stoped on another bank of it and started his Dhuna (fire place) there. He declared himself starting a new pant, and establishing there new Gorakh Tilla, and some yogis of panth supported him. Since that moment new rebellious pant has started, which was called Daryanathi. ‘Darya’ is Urdu word meaning ‘river’, so yogi of new created panth were called Daryanathi, because they were situated on the another bank of river. With passing time the dispute became forgotten, and now days no conflict exist between the two branches of the panth, but those, who are descendants of that ‘rebel’ Yogis, still recognized as separate branch called Daryanathi.

10. Kaplani or Kapal Deo ke

The members of this pant call themselves the descendants of Rishi Kapila or Kapila muni, who is famous as founder of one of the six main branches of the India philosophy Sankya Darshan. The Kaplani or Kapil-panthi order ascribes its origin to Kapal Muni, and is thus also known as Kapal Deo ke. Or it was founded by Ajai Pal, Kapal Muni's disciple, and is thus cousin to the Ganga-nathi order.

11. Rāval

Afganistan Gailpur Bādarbārī Rawal Bābā
The derivation of Raval from ramal appears quite untenable. The word Rāval can be translated from Hindi as chieftain, and was used as a title in Rajasthan. It means "lord" or "ruler" and is thus merely a synonym of nath, but appears to be specially affected by Jogis of the Nag-nathia panth, see infra. Jogis of the Nag-Nathia panth are called Rawals
The Rawals, however, are the most important of the Muhammadan Jogi groups. Found, mainly, in the western districts, they wander far and wide over the rest of India, and even to Europe where they practise as quack occultists and physicians. The name, is indeed, said to be a corruption of the Persian rawinda, 'traveller', 'wanderer': and tradition avers that when Ranjha, in his love for Hir, adapted the guise of a faqir and wandered till he came to Tilla, he became Pir Bala Nath's disciple and thence went to Jhang where he sought for his beloved. All his disciples and companions were called Rawal
The Rawals are sometimes said to be divided into two groups, Mandia (60) and Ghal (61), but according to one account they form a half of one of the 12 orders, the other being the Paras Nath, i.e. the Jains. Probably this latter tale merely means that the Rawals like the Jains are an offshoot of the Jogi cults.

12. Gaṅga Nāthī

Ganganathi The Kaya-nathi or Kayan-nathi is an offshoot of the Ganga-nathi. But in Dera Ghazi Khan it is said that they received their name from Pir Ratn Nath who made an image out of the dirt of his own body. The Ganga-nathi order was founded by one of Kapal Muni's two disciples. It is mentioned in the Tahqiqat as Gangai-nath.

12,5 Kanipha (Kanipa) Yogis

Recognized only as a half-panth, sect of Kanipha (Kanipa) yogis formed by non-organized snake-charmers who are calling themselves followers of Goraksh nath. In reality they hardly can be categorized as proper pant, because they do not have centralized organization. There many different types of people in India who call themselves is category of yogis only living all over India. Considered to be only a half panth, or sometimes not counted at all as part of Nath Sampradaya. In such way they are set aside in lower position then rest of the twelve panths. This pant has no any official relation with Nath Yogis, although it is widely accepted believe that it was created by the order of Goraksh nath. Not like Nath Yogis, who are obliged to remain celibate, Kanipha Yogis are family people and allowed to marry. They earn source of their lives as snake charmers and by providing medicines to cure from bites of snakes and poisonous insects. Being actually separate from twelve panths of Nath Sect by the way of their lives, at the same time they counting themselves as being part of it and having close relations with it.
About the foundation of this panth the legend says, that yogi Kanipa, after having previously few encounters with Guru Goraksh Nath, and after being defeated by him in process, became jealous of him, and was in one-sided confrontation with him. He was continuously looking for chance to have rematch and bring down Goraksn nath.
Once, after bringing his guru Matsyendranath from Triyaraja, Guru Goraksh Nath was giving the big feast (bhandara), on which he invited many contemporary yogis. He invited them sit down on they places, and after putting empty plates in front of each, told them to imagine the dishes of their choices. After it, what ever delicious dishes they were imagining, have appeared on their plates. Kanipha, eager to bring down Goraksh Nath, imagined on his plate snakes and scorpions. “From where he will get them”, he thought, “ so my plate will remind empty, and Goraksh Nath will be put in shame in front of public.” To his wonder, snakes and scorpions appeared on his plate in abundance and started crawling on all sides, creating immense panic around him. Seeing these, Goraksh Nath who has understood situation, came near to him and told, ”Because you have done this, let in your name panth will be created, whose main business will be keeping snakes and scorpions.” Since that time Kanipha yogis were reduced to status of “half” panth, and were obligated always carry with them snakes, scorpions and name of Kanipha, who never was in reality founder of this panth.
Interest to notice that in accordance with Tibetan sources Kanipa placed quite high in the line of Acharyas. In accordance with some texts he shown as be equal or even greater than Guru Goraksh Nath.

Kanthar

Kanthar panth not appearing in modern list of twelve panthas, but frequently present in lists of older original. Panth dervived its name from Lord Ganesha who is caled Kanthar nath in his role as one of Nine Great Nathas. He caled Kanthar nath becouse of his uge neck caled Kanth in Sanskrit.who is. mamongst m
Kanthā f. a rag , patched garment (especially one worn by certain ascetics) Bhartr2. Pan5cat. [cf. Gk. &77826[249 ,2] $ Lat. {centon} O. H. G. {hadara} Germ. {hader}] a town L. (a Tatpurusha compound ending in %{kanthA} is neuter if it imply a town of the Us3i1naras Pa1n2. 2-4 , 20.)
Kanthā dhāraṇa n. wearing a patched garment (as practised by certain Yogins).
Kanthā dhārin m. `" rag-wearer "' , a Yogin , religious mendicant Bhartr2. in accordance with M-Wilyams

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