Science occupies the most prestigious position in the twentieth century. It has done marvel in analysing phenomena of Nature, and in dispelling human ignorance. Even then, when scientists probe deep into the structure of phenomena, they are faced with several enigmate problems, and Nature appears to be still a mystery to them.
During recent years scientists have come to realize that the scientific method has its basic limitations. Scientists have to remain satisfied with merely pragmatic and tentative truth because all scientific theories are falsifiable. Kuhn has rightly pointed out that recurrent ‘revolutions’ may take place in the domain of science because no theoretical framework of science may adequately explain all the aspects of the phenomena which it studies. In the view, scientific investigation cannot be regarded as ‘ cumulative enterprise’ popper maintains that a scientific theory which cannot adequately explain a phenomenon may be overthrown and a new theory may be propounded which may explain the phenomenon more adequately. It is evident, then, that scientific knowledge can claim certainly within a very limited range.
Yet, very curiously enough, most intellectuals all over the world believe that objetive truth can be known by scientific method alone. They seem to be affected by a sort of mass hypnosis.
It is still more strange that physicians seem to dominate the entire intellectual world. It has been assumed by physicians that material energy is the foundation of the entire universe. Einstein tried to explain the entire physical reality from the standpoint of the unified field theory, according to which everything in the universe is the manifestation of eletromagnetic field. Heisenberg made a similar attempt to explain everything in the physical reality from the standpoint of material energy. However, both Einstein and Heisenberg admitted that the unified field theory was imperfect. Heisenberg pointed out that the various phenomena of elementary particles have not yet been properly understood within the framework of the unified field of theory.
Life scientists seem to be unaware of the latest developments in the domain of physics, and they assume that material energy is the basis of all living phenomena, and that all organic processes can be explained by the laws of physics and chemistry.
It may be remarked here that most biologists accept this principle of reduction on the basis of dogma rather than on rational justification. Some biologists try to explain the behaviour of living organisms on the model of a machine. Kalmus comments that the attempt of biologists to explain non-quantitative organic processes of a living organism on quantitative terms is a sort of mock-engineering.
Some modern psychologists have attempted to explain human behaviour on the model of a computer. Skinner has dismissed the concept of mind from psychology, and has compared human personality to a slot-machine. He has tried to reduce psychology to cultural engineering, the aim of which is to completely control human behaviour through conditioning.
The comment which has been made earlier that most intellectuals all over the world are working under the spell of physical scientists seems to be amply justified in the light of the illustrations which have been given above. It may be remarked, therefore, that most intellectuals have not yet been able to have a clear comprehension about the foundation of Nature.
I. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF TANTRA AGAMAS.
According to Tantra Agamas, pure consciousness is the ultimate reality. It is metaphorically called ‘Shiva’, the auspicious supreme God. It is inseparably associated with pure energy. Pure energy is metaphorically called ‘Shakti’, the mysteriously energizing supreme Goddess. Pure consciouness imposes limitations on itself, and miniaturizes itself into finite individuals for sportive experience. Pure energy casts its mysterious spell around miniaturized pure consciousness and traps it within a snare. Atomic shells constitute a snare and the field with which it interacts is the subtle network of energy. A growing embryo is a snare which is nurtured by the network of placenta. The entire universe is a network of eletromagnetic field within which all objects and individuals interact.
Shakti is the creator of the great mystery; and hence, she is known as ‘Katyayni’- the supreme mystery. That is why Nature is a great mystery. That is also why human personality is a great mystery. Matter, life, space, time, death and so on are all mysteries which neither philosophers nor scientists will ever be able to solve.
Material atoms have consciousness trapped within them. Pure energy is highly contracted and coiled and it encapsules consciousness within it. Coiled and contracted pure energy is known as ‘Kundalini’. It is metaphorically called a ‘sleeping and coiled serpent’. In material atoms ‘Kundalini’ encapsulates consciousness.
In lower forms of living organisms Kundalini gets entrenched within chromossomes and gets entwined with enchanted with enchanted consciouness. Both Kundalini and the enchanted consciousness remain sandwiched within four dimensional empirical space and time in lower forms of living organisms.
In human personality Kundalini lies slumbering in a coiled state at the base of the spinal cord. The sleeping Kundalini with the tip of its tail in its mouth is known as ‘adho-kundalini’ (downward facing Kundalini). In every ordinary person Kundalini is in a slumbering state so that his sense organs and understanding satisfy his unfulfilled desires. In a Tantrik Kundalini is awake and it ascends upwards via the Sushumna nadi within the spinal cord. The ascending Kundalini is called ‘Urdhvaa Kundalini’. It is like a flash of lightning which illumines the interior of the body of an individual.
Pure consciousness is above the head of a human personality. Here the term ‘above’ is used in the sense of beyond four dimensions of empirical space and time. Kundalini has the potentiality of ascending upto the plane of pure consciousness which touches the sahasrara ( the thousand petalled lotus) where sada-Shiva resides.
An individual can have intuitive consciousness when Kundalini ascends to the plane of higher consciousness. He becomes an extra-ordinary person with occult powers.
There is a subtle vibration in pure consciouness. The spontaneous vibration of pure consciousness is known as ‘spanda’. Spanda is the ultimate source of throbs, vibrations, pulsation, waves and rhythms which are found in all phenomena of Nature. The ascending Kundalini can intuitively apprehend the spontaneous rhythm of spanda and become aware of the theme of pure consciousness.
The play of pure consciousness is mettaphorically known as –dance of Nataraja. All phenomena of Nature are manifestations of the dance of Shiva and Shakti. The aim of every individual is to identify himself with the play theme of Shiva and Shakti.
II. TANTRA AND THE CONSEPTS OF CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE
Most concepts of contemporary science tally with the basic concept of Tantra Agamas. Tantrik Yogis anticipated centuries ago through intuitive consciousness what the contemporary scientists have establishes through empirical research. Many contemporary scientists have not yet been able to fully understand the implication of the experimental results in the domain of physical and life sciences. A brief exposition of some of the concepts of modern science which tally with the classical concepts of Tantra Agamas is given below—
(a) Spontaneity in the Behaviour of the Particles.
Heisenberg found that the material particles do not behave according to deterministic laws, rather, they behave according to indeterministic principle. His principle of indeterminancy states that both the position and the velocity of an electron cannot accurately be known at the same time. In his view, it is impossible in principle to ascertain the exact initial values of the position and the velocity of an electron and hence the future state of an electron cannot be predicted with exactness.
Fort remarks that Heisenberg’s principle of indeterminacy indicates that Nature shields its innermost secrets and does not allow scientists to know its minute details beyond a certain limit. Heisenberg’s principle of indeterminacy indicates that there is spontaneity at the very foundation of Nature.
In Tantra Agamas it has been pointed out that Sva-cchanda (spontaneity) is the basic aspect of ultimate reality. Svacchanda is the ultimate source of liberty, freedom and indeterminacy.
(b) Wave Nature of Micro-phenomena
De Brogli found that all microphenomena are as isolated with waves and he formulated his theory of wave mechanics on the basis of his experimental findings. Schrodinger also found that material particles are nothing but wave-systems. Dirac further elaborated the theory of wave mechanics in his theory of quantum eletrodynamics. He found that all material particles have wave properties.
The wave nature of particles was anticipated centuries ago by the Tantrik concept of Spanda. The concept of Spanda the waves, rhythms, pulsations and throbs are universal in their nature.
(c) Helical Nature of Creative Advance
It has been found out through research in empirical science that creative advance has a helical structure. For instance, when a charged particle moves in a magnetic field with its velocity vector at a velocity other than 90% with repect to the field direction, the orbit will not be circular, rather it will move in a helical orbit.
Watson and Crick have found that DNA molecules can replicate their exact copies and their two strands get coiled like a rope. The DNA molecule is a helical which resembles a circular staircase having the same diameter and the same width of steps with connecting railing on either side.
The helical nature of creative advance was anticipated centuries ago by the Tantrik concept of Kundalini and its ativation and ascent. Energy is initially in a highly coiled state prior to its creative advance. When the ascending Kundalini becomes straight like a rod of a light its creative activity ceases.
(d) Identity of matter and light
The concept of matter as inert has now been discarded. Einstein found that matter is energy. De Broglie found that all forms of matter are composed of light waves. In his view there is identity between matter and light. Material particles are capable of being transformed into radiation, and radiation is also capable of being condensed into new particles of matter.
Tantra Agamas anticipate the recent findings of wave mechanics. According to Tantra Agamas, light of consciousness is the ultimate source of all forms of light. Pure consciousness is of the nature of light, and all entities which emerge out of it are also of the nature of light. Light of consciousness is of more fundamental nature than light of material energy.
(e) Universality of Bio-rhythms
It has been recently found out life scientists that bio-rhythms spontaneously occur in all living organisms thoughout their lives. Bio-rhythms of different frequencies form an ensemble for producing reponses to the environment stimuli. Bio-rhythms of different frequencies produce awareness in a living organism about temporal sequence.
It may be remarked here that the concept of spanda in Tantra Agamas anticipated the concept of bio-rhythms which has been recently found out in life science. The Tantrik concept of spanda is more comprehensive than the concept of bio-rhythm. It gives awareness of empirical time of a living organism. Spanda is subtle rhythm which gives awareness of transcendent time to a Tantrik yogi. Transcendence of empirical time is the supreme goal of a Tantrik yogi.
III. EMPIRICAL TIME TRANSCENDENCE IN TANTRA-YOGA
Tantra Agamas lay stress on the emancipation of na individual from limited knowledge and suffering within the span of his life time. An individual can have omniscience within his life time. He can reach the plane of transcendent time and have instantaneous knowledge of all the events of the past, the present and the future through intuitive consciousness.
Empirical time is the first factor of the basic ignorance in human beings. It is the source of particuliarity in an object and personal identity in an individual. It is the principle of objectification, individualization, process, activity and creativity. It is the principle through which events take place in Nature. It is the source of limited knowledge in human beings. It delimits empirical knowledge of human beings to the empirical plane.
An individual can ascend from the level of empirical time by absorbing the process of the gross body into pure vital principle, vital principle into intellect and intellect into indifferentiated consciousness. The regulation of the vital prinviple in the upward direction is known as ‘Uccara’ (ascent).
Pranayama (breath control) and dhyana (meditation) are the most effective methods by which an individual can raise his consciousness to its higher states. An individual can have intuitive consciousness of the entire sequence of time in a subtle and undifferentiated form through expansion of his consciousness.
A Tantrik Yogi is a calm observer of the three-fold scheme of the sequential time (trikala-darshi) in an instant. He tries to catch the rhythm of the transcedent time through intuitive consciousness, and he has awareness of the scheme of existence which is known as ‘Manasi/ Srishti’. He has, thus, partial omniscience.
Science has enriched human life from the quantitative poit of view. It has tried to satisfy the material, biological and social needs of human beings. But it has not made any significant contribution to enhance the quality of human existence. On the contrary, science being value-neutral it has dehumanizing effect on human personality.
Tremendous advancements in the fields of science and technology have brought about rapid changes in society, human personality and physical environment all over the world. In fact, science and technology have become almost like extensions of human personality, just as clothes and furniture are its necessary embelishments.
However, the value-neutral nature of science and technology has affected the nature of civilized persons, and their attitude towards life has become pragmatic. The behaviour pattern of civilized persons tends to become ethically standardless because their pragmatic outlook usually makes them overlook the significance of end-and-means-compatibility. That is why there is rapid deterioration in the moral quality of human personality.
There is a rapid increase in the number of crimes, mob violence, sexual perversions and alcoholism in many technologically advanced societies. Thus, symptons of social pathology are becoming very conspicious in many civilized societies.There is rapid increase in environmental pollution due to industrial pollutants, nuclear explosions, deforestation, overcrowding in urban areas, etc. Sophisticated development in defence technology has posed a threat to security of mankind on a global scale.
Science and tevhnology have come to stay despite their drawbacks and side effects on the deterioration of human personality. They are urgently in need of a ‘weltanschauung’ – a comprehensive conception of civilization, to give them orientation to the future development of mankind.
In the opinion of the author of this paper, the world-view of Tantra Agamas is most comprehensive and consistent and it may act as a guiding principle for future development of science and technology. It can improve the moral quality of human personality and create conditions for producing harmony in society. It can restore ecological harmony in the world which is fast getting disturbed. It can bring human personality in tune with the play theme of pure conscious energy (Shiva-Shakti).
The present life of an individual is just a fragment of an irreversible film which unfolds itself through the sequential empirical time, and witness the entire drama of his life within the span of just one life. This is the guarantee which lord Shiva has given to the people of morally decadent epoch (kali-yuga).
An individual can float in the stream of higher consciousness through the spiritualization of his body and mind. Asanas, pranayama, nyasa, bhuta-suddhi, Kundalini Jagarana and chakra-bheda, dhyana, etc, are the aids by which an individual can burn the gross desires in his body and mind till he becomes an Avadhuta yogi (purified). A Tantrik yogi can have omniscience when he ascends from sequential time to transcendent time. He can witness the drama of his life in the context of the world drama during turiya (trance) state of consciousness which he can attain through sustained meditation. He can witness the entire theme of his life’s drama, (which is ordinarily spread over many births), in his present life itself.